43 terms

AP Human Geography Ch.10

Agriculture vocabulary words - From Rubenstein Ch 10, Barrons, and DeBlij

Terms in this set (...)

Commercial agriculture combined with characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
The deliberate modification of Earth's surface through the cultivation of plants and the rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
The use of genetically engineered crops in agricutlure and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production. Example: radiation of meats and vegetables to prolong their freshness
Boserup Hypothesis
Said that agriculture methods depend on population size
-The more innovations will be made to feed the larger population
Carl Sauer
1925 Geographer that argued that cultural landscapes should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry
Cash Crop
A readily salable crop- produced or gathered primarily for markets (typically tropical...)
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Commodity Chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
Contour Plowing
An agricultural technique in which plowing and harvesting are done parallel to the topographic contours of the land, in order to prevent erosion.
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans.
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Extensive Subsistence
Consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Land that is not used for farming
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate
Genetically modified foods(GMO)
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency
Green Revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
The cultivation of multiple crops in the same fields
Livestock Ranching
The raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool.
luxury crops
Crops not grown for sustenance to include tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Market Gardening
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers
Mediterranean agriculture
Type of specialized farming occuring only in the areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails along the shores of the Mediterranean sea
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Neolithic revolution
8,000 - 4,000 B.C. "New Stone Age" changed from hunting and gathering to keeping of animals and growing of food.
Pastoral nomadian
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Ridge tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
A government payment in order to avoid a lack of staple crops, and , in Europe, to preserve farm culture and rural ways of life.
Subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Survey Patterns
patterns used to survey the land on Earth
Sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Thomas Malthus
political economist that belived that humans would over populate and run out of food in the future
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Vertical Integration
When you buy your suppliers out, in order to control your own raw materialss and businesses.
von Thunen Model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activities in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods, that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.