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21 terms

Ch.5 nowicki

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cell cycle
the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
mitosis
the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
cytokinesis
the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
chromosome
one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
chromatin
loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
chromatid
one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere
region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis
prophase
first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase
second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase
third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
telophase
last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cancer
common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
benign
having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
malignant
cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogens
substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer
asexual reproduction
the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes
binary fission
the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts
cell differentiation
the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions
stem cells
cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated