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cell cycle

the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells


the division of the cell nucleus and its contents


the process that divides the cell cytoplasm


one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information


loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase


one half of a duplicated chromosome


region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis


first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell


second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator


third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell


last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble


programmed cell death


common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division


having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous


cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health


to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body


substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer

asexual reproduction

the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes

binary fission

the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts

cell differentiation

the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions

stem cells

cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

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