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73 terms

Social Psychology Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Group
two or more people who interact with and influence one another; perceive themselves as "us"
Co-actors
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
Social Facilitation: original meaning
tendency for people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present
Social Facilitation: current meaning
the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others
Why are we aroused in the presence of others? Three Factors (Zajonc):
evaluation apprehension, distraction, mere presence
Evaluation Apprehension
concern for how others are evaluating us
Distraction
conflict between paying attention to others/ non human distractions such as light, and paying attention to the task
Social Loafing
tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
Free Riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
Group Polarization
whatever initial feeling of a group will strengthen over time; can be produced by discussion
Risky Shift Phenomenon
group decisions are usually riskier; occurs when a group decides by consensus and when individuals alter their decisions after discussion. may see this in: Juries, Business communities, Military organizations, teen drivers.
Group Polarization Experiments: MZ, MI, MB
Moscovici and Zavalloni; Mititoshi Isozaki; Markus Brauer
Moscovici and Zavalloni
discussion enhanced french students initially positive attitudes toward their president and negative attitudes towards americans
Mititoshi Isozaki
Japanese students gave more pronounced judgements of "guilty" after discussing a traffic case
Markus Brauer
french students' dislike for certain other people increased after discussing their shared negative impressions
Group polarization in schools: Accentuation Effect
over time initial differences among groups of college students become accentuated: students at school x become more intelligent than students at college y; independents compared to frat members become more liberal as time goes on
Group polarization in communities: Self Segregation
conservative places attract conservative people and become more so
Group polarization on the internet
e-mail, blogs, chat rooms offer a new medium for like-minded people to share and increase their ideas
Group polarization in terrorist organizations
arises among people whose shared grievances bring them together; in isolation from moderating influences, they progressively become more extreme
Information influence
influence that arises from accepting evidence about reality via persuasive arguments and active participation in discussion
Normative influence
influence based on a persons desire to be accepted/admired by others; arises from social comparison and pluralistic ignorance
social comparison
Leon Festinger; evaluating ones opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
Irving Janis
analyzed decision making processes that led to major fiascos: Pearl Harbor, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Vietnam War
Groupthink
the tendency of decision making groups to suppress dissent in the interest of group harmony
Janis believes groupthink arises from:
Cohesive group, Isolation of group from dissenting viewpoints, Directive leader
Eight Symptoms of group think
illusion of invulnerability; belief in groups morality; rationalization; stereotyping of other groups; conformity pressure; self-censorship; illusion of unanimity, mind-guards
Preventing Groupthink
be impartial; encourage critical evaluation; subdivide group then unite and share differences; welcome critiques from outside experts; call a second-chance meeting
Vincent Brown's and Paul Paulus' three ways to enhance group brainstorming
Combine group/solitary brainstorming; Have group members interact by writing; Incorporate electronic brainstorming
Moscovici's determinants of minority inflence
consistency, self-confidence, defections from majority
Consistency
a minority that sticks to its position is more influential
Minority-slowness effect
tendency for people with minority views to express them less quickly than do people in the majority
Defections from the Majority
a minority person who had defected from the majority is even more persuasive than a consistent minority voice
Leadership
process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
Task-leadership
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
Social-leadership
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Transformational Leadership
leadership that, enabled by a leaders vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence
Conformity
change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Three types of conformity
compliance, obedience, acceptance
Compliance
conforming to an expectation or request without really believing in what we are doing
Obedience
acting in accord with a direct order or command
Acceptance
conformity that involving both acting an believing in accord with social pressure
Sherif
Norm Formation; Used autokinetic phenomenon that asked groups of men to determine how much the point of light had moved—the responses of the med changed markedly; The point of light never move
Autokinetic Phenomenon
the apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark
"Werther effect"
Copy cat suicides
Asch
Group Pressure/conformity; Perceptual judgment experiment (line length); Six confederates gave incorrect answers to see if participant would agree even if he knew it was the incorrect answer
Milgram
Obedience Experiments; Tested what happens when the demands of authority clash with the demands of conscience; complying with commands to shock another; 65 % of participants continued beyond expectations
What Breeds Obedience
Victim's distance or depersonalization; Closeness and legitimacy of authority; Institutional authority; Liberating effects of group influence
real life examples of norm formation
interpreting events differently after hearing from others; appreciating a tasty food that others love
real life example of group pressure / conformity
doing as others do; fads such as tattoos
real life example of obedience
soldiers or employees following questionable orders
norm formation
Sherif; assessing suggestibility regarding seeming movement of light
conformity
Asch; agreement with others obviously wrong perceptual judgements; when others unanimously gave a wrong answer, the participants conformed 37% of the time
obedience
Milgram; complying with commands to shock another
what predicts conformity?
group size; unanimity; cohesion; status; public response; prior commitment:
Group Size
people conform most when three or more people/groups model the behavior/belief
Unanimity
conformity is reduced if the modeled behavior or belief is not unanimous
public response
people conform most when their responses are public
Personality scores
are poor predictors of specific acts of conformity but better predictors of average conformity
Reactance
a motive to protect or restore ones sense of freedom; arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
Persuasion
a process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
what two paths lead to persuasion?
central route and peripheral route
Central Route
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts; more durable and more likely to influence behavior
Peripheral Route
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness; superficial and temporary attitude change
Creditability
Believability; Perceived expertise: speak confidently; Perceived trustworthiness: eye contact, arguing against own self-interest
Sleeper Effect
delayed persuasion, after people forget the source or its connection with the message
Discrepancy (cognitive dissonance)
Depends on the communicator's credibility;
One-sided message
more effective if the person initially agrees with the message
Two-sided message
more effective is people are (or will be) exposed to opposing arguments; the primacy effect often makes first message more persuasive, if there is a time gap in between the messages the result will be a recency effect in which second message prevails
Primacy Effect
Stronger; information presented first usually has the most influence
Recency Effect
information presented last sometimes has the most influence; Recency effects are less common than primacy effects
Cult (new religious movement)
group characterized by distinctive rituals or beliefs related to its devotion to a god or person; isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture; charismatic leader
Attitude Inoculation
mild attack might build resistance; exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available