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According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:

initiative versus guilt

According to Erik Erikson, the "great governor" of initiative is:


Young children's self-descriptions are typically:

unrealistically positive

"I am very friendly. I am good," says Nisha, age 5, of herself. This reflects how young children:

sometimes embellish facts to make themselves appear good

To experience ____ like pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt, children must be able to refer to themselves and be aware of themselves as distinct from others.

self-conscious emotions

After Kate, age 3, has called her playmate a "jerk" and pushed him down, her mother tells her that she should be ashamed of her behavior. Kate's mother is helping Kate to develop her:

self-conscious emotions

Four-year-old Melody is throwing a tantrum because her mother told her that she could not stay up late with her older sister to watch television. Melody's mother said, "I can see that you are angry, but your bedtime is 8:00. We can read a book together in bed to help you calm down." Compared to her peers, Melody is more likely to:

be better at self-soothing when she does not get her way

Barbara monitors her cildren's emotions, views their negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, and assists her children in labeling their emotions. She is an:

emotion-coaching parent

____ involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should o in their interactions with other people.

Moral development

Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by ____ theory.

Freud's psychoanlytic

____ is responding to another person's feelings with an emotion that echoes the other's feelings


Dante is a 10-year-old who likes to play soccer during recess. One day a friend teaches him a different set of rules about the game that Dante accepts. He now play soccer in a new way. Dante is in which stage of moral development?

autonomous morality

According to Jean Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to advance moral reasoning than peer realtions because:

parents are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning abut broken rules

Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us undersand moral behavior of children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?

Punishment will always increase modeling of moral behavior

Social cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of ___ in determining moral behavior.


Which of the following statements about parenting and young children's morals development is true?

early mutually responsive orientation between parents and their infant was linked to an increase in the child's internalization and self-regulation.

___ involves a sense of one's own gender, including knowledge, understanding, and acceptance of being male or female

Gender identity

Low levels of ___ in the female embryo allow the normal development of female sex organs.


A recent study revealed that higher fetal testosterone level measured from amniotic fluid was linked to ___ in 6 to 10 year old boys and girls

increase male -typical play

According to the ___ theory of gender, children's gender development occurs through observing and imitating what other peolpe say and do, and through being rewarded and punished for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior

social cognitive

Which of the following statements is true about parenting influences on children's gender development?

fathers show more attention to sons than to doaughters

Which theory of gender claims that children first think of themselves as a "boy" or "girl" and then later decide how to behave in masculine or feminine ways?

Gender schema theory

Which parenting style is demanding and controlling, while also being rejecting, and unresponsive?


Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few friends. Her teacher asked her why she sat by herself at lunch Penelope stated that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were


A parent who is very uninvolved in a child's life, showing neither responsiveness or control is a(n):

neglectful parent

A parent who encourages his/her children to e independent, but still places limits and controls on their actions is a(n):

authoritative parent

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