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APES CHAPTER 11 - Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: Managing & Protecting Ecosystems
Terms in this set (24)
Factors that Increase Biodiversity
Middle stages of succession
Moderate environmental disturbance
Small changes in environmental conditions
Physically diverse habitat
Factors that Decrease Biodiversity
Extreme environmental conditions
Large environmental disturbance
Intense envronmental stress
Severe shortages of key resources
Nonnative species introduction
One of the values of diversity:
These components of biodiversity exist, regardless of their use to us
Other value of biodiversity
Its usefulness to us as humans
Multidisciplinary science that originated in the 1970s
Goal: to use emergency responses to slow down the rate at which we are destroying and degrading biodiversity
Identify most endangered species by hotspots (most endangered and species rich ecosystems)
Goal: protect species from premature extinction
Strategies: indentify endangered species, protect their habitats
Tactics: legally protect endangered speices, manage habitats, reintroduce species to suitable habitats
Goal: protect populations of species in their natural habitats
Strategy: preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems
Tactics: protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action, reduce/eliminate populations of nonnative species from protected areas, restore degreated ecosystems
The applied science of managing, analyzing, and communicating biological info.
uses images to analyze specimans
builds computer databases to hold images, DNA sequences, available on the internet
U.S. Public Lands (list types)
National Forest System: used for logging, mining, livestock, hunting, fishing, oil, conservation of watershed, soil, and wildlife resources
National Resource Lands: mining, oil, gas, and livestock grazing.
National Wildlife Refuges: protect habitats and breeding areas for waterfowl and big game, provide harvestable supply for hunters, some protect endangered spcies from extinction. hunting, trapping, fishing, mingin, logging, grazing, military activities, farming.
National Park System: monuments, memorials, battlefields, historic sites, rivers, trails. Only boating, camping, hiking, sport fishing.
National Wilderness Preservation: only open for hiking, sport fishing, camping, some boating.
Old Growth Forest
Classification of forests based on age and structure:
An uncut forest that has not been seriously disturbed by humans or natural disasters for at least several hundred years. Storehouses for biodiversity
Second Growth Forest
A stand of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession. Develop after trees in an area have been removed by humans or natural forces
AKA tree farm
Managed tract with uniformly aged trees of one species that are harvested by clear-cutting as soon as they become commercially valuable
Age Based Management
Even-aged: Maintaining trees in a given stand at about the same age and size.
Uneven-aged: maintaining a variety of tree species at many ages and sizes. goal is biodiversity, long term production
Tree Harvesting Methods (5)
Selective Cutting: intermediate or mature trees in an uneven-aged forest, cut in small groups. Reduces crowding, growth of younger trees, natural regeneration, protects from erosion and wind damage.
Shelterwood Cutting: removes all mature trees in an area over a period of time
Seed-tree cutting: loggers harvest nearly all of stands trees in one cutting but leave a few trees that can seed produce
Clear-Cutting: removes all trees from an area in a single cutting
Strip Cutting: clear-cutting a strip of trees along the contour of land, narrow enough to allow for natural regeneration. minimal damage.
Temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture or other uses. Many harmful effects to the environment that reduce ecological services
Grow more timber on long rotations
Rely more on selective cutting
No clear-cutting, seed-tree, or shelterwood cutting on sloped land
Leave most standing dead trees or fallen timber for wildlife habitat and nutrient recycling
Forests & Disease
Some species are causing serious damage to certain tree species. Several ways to reduce harmful impacts.
Ban imported timber, selectively remove or clear-cut infected and infested trees, develop tree species that are genetically resistant to common tree diseases, control insects.
Forests & Fire
Three types of fires effect forests: surface fires, crown fires, ground fires.
Ways to prevent/protect: prescribed burning, burning permits, closing all or parts of a forest, educating
More than half of the world´s species live in tropical rainforests. 20% have been deforested or degraded.
Without immediate action Brazil´s original Amazon rain forests may disappear within 40-50 years.
5 Causes of Tropical Deforestation
Not Valuing Ecological services
Case Study: Neem Tree
Neem tree: a broadleaf evergreen member of the mahongany family.
Ideal for reforestation because it can grown to maturity in only 5-7 years, grows well in poor soil, contains natural pesticides, help develop male-birth control pill
Case Study: Costa Rica
Costa Rica is a superpower of biodiveristy
1970s Costa Rica established a system of reserves and natural parks, devotes large proportion of land conservation
$1 billion a year to ecotourism
Adaptive Ecosystem Management
Based on four principles:
Integrate ecological, economic, and social principles to maintain and restore sustainability and diversity of reserves while supporting economies and communities
Seek ways to get government agencies, private conservation organizations, scientists, and owners to reach a consensus on how to achieve conservation goals
View all decisions and strategies as scientific and social experiments
Emphasize continual information gathering, monitoring, reassessment, flexibility, adaptation, and innovation in the face of changes and uncertainty.
Deliberate alteration of a degraded habitat or ecosystem to restore as much of its ecological structure/function as possible.
repairing damage causes by humans
Replanting forests, restoring grasslands
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