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Milady cosmetology chapter 20
Terms in this set (119)
Chemical hair texture services give you the ability to do what?
Permanently change the hair's natural wave and curl pattern there by offering clients a variety of styling options that would not otherwise be possible. They can be use to curl straight hair, straight and overly curly hair, or soften tightly coiled hair.
Without a thorough understanding of chemistry, cosmetologist could do what?
Could damage hair, cause hair loss, and harm their clients and themselves.
Chemical texture services
Our hair services that cause a chemical change within the hair's natural wave and curl pattern
Adding wave or curl to the hair.
Removing curl or waves. Leaving the hair smooth and straight
Curl reforming or soft curl permanent
Loosening overly curly hair, changing tightly curly or coiled hair into loose curls and wave
The cuticle protects the hair from damage and is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair but text your chemicals must penetrate through the cuticle to the target in the cortex in order to be effective.
The middle layer of the hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer the cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. Breaking the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair.
The innermost layer of the hair, often called the piss or core of the hair. The medulla does not play a role in chemical text or services and may be missing in fine hair.
What is pH an abbreviation for?
What does the symbol pH represent?
The quantity of hydrogen ions
What does the pH scale measure?
The acidity and alkalinity of a substance by measuring the quantity of hydrogen ions it contains and may range from 0 to 14
A pH of 7
A pH below 7
A pH above 7
What is the natural pH of the hair?
Between 4.5 and 5.5
Chemical solutions do what to the pH of the hair?
They raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state. This action opens the cuticle layer of the hair and allows the solution to reach the cortex layer, where restructuring occurs.
Coarse hair will acquire what type of chemical solution?
Course, resistant hair with a strong compact cuticle layer requires a highly alkaline chemical solution.
Poorest, damaged, or chemically treated hair requires what type of chemical solution?
Already damaged hair quires a less alkaline solution.
Are compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Also known as end bonds, are chemical bonds let Julian amino acids together, and the end in long chains, to form a polypeptide chain.
Are long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
Are long, coiled polypeptide chains. They are also made of long chains of amino acids linked together and to end like beads. Amino acid chains are linked together by polypeptide bonds or end bonds.
Are disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that are cross-link polypeptide chains together. Side bonds are found in the cortex.
Are strong Chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.
Are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges or ionic bonds. They are easily broken by changes in pH, and the reform when the pH returns to normal levels.
Are weak physical side bonds but are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges. They are easily broken by water or heat, and they reform as a hard dries or cools.
Is a two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods. The hair then undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
When performing a permanent waving service, what determines the size of the curl?
The size of the rod determines the size of the curl. The shape and type of girl are determined by the shape and type of rod and the wrapping method used
Occurs after the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds. A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen. The reduction reaction in permanent waving is due to the addition of hydrogen.
What other reactions involved in the chemical process of permanent waving?
Identified bond joins the sulfur atoms in two adjacent polypeptide chains. Permanent wave solutions breaks the disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of its sulfur atoms. The sulfur atoms attached to the hydrogen atom from the permanent waving solution, breaking their attachment to each other. Once the disulfide bond is broken, the polypeptide chains can form into their new curved shape. Reduction break specified bond and oxidation reforms them
All permanent wave solutions contain what?
A reducing agent, which is commonly referred to as thio, is used in permanently solutions. It contains thiol, which is a particular group of compounds, along the carboxylic acid.
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio. Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perm.
Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrates into the cortex, it's necessary for manufacturers to add what?
An alkalizing agent
Which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanent. Is the addition of ammonia to thioglycolate.
The degree of alkalinity, pH, is a second factor to what?
The overall strength of weaving solution.
The alkalinity of the perm solution should correspond to what?
The resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer.
Also known as cold waves, were developed in 1941. They have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6. Ammonia thioglycolate is the reducing agent, and it processes at room temperature without the addition of heat
Is the main active ingredient in true acid and acid balance waving lotion. It has a low pH and is the primary reducing agent in most acid waves. Most acid Wavves also contain 18, just like a cold leave. Although the low pH of acid Wavves may seem ideal, repeated exposure to the MTG is known to cause allergic sensitivity to both hairstylist and clients
All acid waves have three separate components, what are they?
Permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer
Exothermic chemical reactions produce heat. Exothermic wave create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing.
An endothermic chemical reaction is the one that absorbs heat from its surroundings. Endothermic waves are activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer
Ammonia free waves
Are perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little older associated with there use. Remember ammonia-free does not necessarily mean damage free.
use an ingredient other than ATG, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine, as the primary reducing agent. Even though these thio substitutes are not technically ATG, they are still thio compounds.
Low pH waves
The use of salt seeds, sulfites, and bisulfite presents an alternative to ATG. Sulfites work at low pH. They have been used in firms for years, but they have never been very popular. Permanent space on sulfites are very weak and do not provide a firm curl comic specially on strong or resistant hair sulfide permanents are usually marked as body waves or alternative waves.
Accidentally mixing the continents of the activator tube with the neutralizer instead of the permanent waving solution can cause what?
A violent chemical reaction that can cause injury, especially to the eyes. So always use caution
Why is it always important to check the Muni factores instructions and the product safety data sheet for accurate and detailed information?
Because the products can be among the same category, the ingredients, strength, and pH of permanent wave solutions can differ among manufacturers and can vary considerably.
In permanent waving when does most of the processing time take place?
From the time the solution penetrates the hair, within the first 5 to 10 minutes. The additional processing time allows the polypeptide chains to shift to the new configuration.
What happens if too many disulfide bonds are broken?
The hair might not hold the desired curl
Why is it that over processed hair is usually earlier at the scalp and straight at the end?
Because the hair at the scalp is usually stronger than the hair at the ends
If hair is overprocessed what will happen with further processing?
Will make the hair straighter and cause further damage including breaking
What happens if the hair is under processed?
Too few of the disulfide bonds are broken and the hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not hold the desired curl.
Stop the action of the waving solution and rebuilds with hair into its new curly form.
What are the two important functions of neutralization?
Deactivate any of the remaining waving solution and I feel fine bonds that were broken by the waving solution are rebuilt
What are the neutralizers used in permanent waving?
Why is the word neutralizer not accurate for the thio neutralization process?
Because the chemical reaction involved is actually oxidization.
What is the most common neutralizer?
Hydrogen peroxide concentrations vary between 5 volume which is 1.5% and 10 volume with you 3%
Always rinse my hair with what tempature of water?
Always use what type of water pressure on the hair?
A gentle stream of water
Should you ever apply pressure to the rods while rinsing out the solutions?
Always start rinsing what area of the head first?
The area the perm solution was applied to first with the most fragile areas typically being at the temple and hairline
Why is it always important to check the neighbor area when rinsing out a perm solution?
To ensure that you're thoroughly rinsing the bottom rods
Always rinse for the time recommended by who?
Why is it important to always smell the hair after the recommended time has elapsed?
Because if it smells like burning solution, continue rinsing until the odor is gone
Why is it important you always gently blonde hair with a dry towel?
Because firmly and aggressively blocking the hair could disrupt the curl locking pattern and alter the final wave or curl
You should always check for what after you rinse the hair?
For excess moisture expecially at the nape of the neck before you apply the neutralizing solution
What is the last step before applying the neutralizer?
Adjusting any rides I have become loose your drifted out of alignment prior to applying it
Are the most common type of Perm rod, they have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a large diameter on the ends.
Are equal and diameter along the entire length or curling area
Soft bender rods
Are usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Also known as a circle rod is usually 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Also known as and wrap, Carson, Durban paper is used to control the end of the hair when wrapping and winding the hair on the perm rods. And papers should extend beyond the ends of the hair to keep them smooth and straight and to prevent fish hooks
What are the three most common endpaper techniques
Double flat wrap, single flat wrap, and book end wrap
Double flat wrap
Is a perm wrap in which one and paper is placed under an another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped. Both paper extend past the hair ends. This wrap provides the most control over the hair ends and also helps keep them evenly distributed over the entire length of the rod.
Single flat wrap
Is similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one and paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair
Book end wrap
Uses one and paper folded in half over the hair and like an envelope. The book on rap eliminates access paper and can be used with short rods or with very short length of hair.
What do all perm wraps begin with?
The sectioning of the hair into panels.
Are sub sections of panels into which the Harris divided for perm wrapping, one rod is normally placed on each base section
Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
On base placement
The hair is wrapped 45° beyond perpendicular to its base ception and the rod is positioned on its base. Caution should be used with on base placement because the additional stress and tension can mark or break the hair
Half off base placement
The the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90° or perpendicular to its base sections, and the rod is position have office space section. Half off base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair.
Refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head which is horizontally vertically or diagonally. Based Direction also refers to the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
What are the two basic techniques of wrapping the hair around the perm rod?
Croquignole perm wrap and a spiral perm wrap
Croquignole perm wrap
Is wrapped from the end to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers
Spiral perm wrap
The hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod
Double rod wrap
Also known as a piggyback rap, in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to Midway down the hair shaft and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
Basic permanent wrap
Also known as a straight set wrap is a wrapping pattern in which all the roads within the panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases. All the base sections are horizontal and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
The curvature perm wrap
Partings and bases radiate throughout the panels follow the curvature of the head
Bricklaye perm wrap
It's similar to the actual technique of bricklaying Bay sections are offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable split into blend the flow of the hair
Use a zig zag parting to divide the base areas
Why is it important to examine the scalp before the perm service
Because you cannot proceed if there are any scalp regions are signs of scalp disease
Why is it important to not attempt to perm hair that has been previously treated with hydroxide relaxers?
Because it will not take to the perm
Why are metallic salts, such as the ones that are in some hair coloring products, not compatible with permanent waving?
Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage.
Chemical hair relaxing
Is a process that rearranges the structure of curly hair into straighter or smoother form.
Use the same ATG that is used in permanent waving but a higher concentration and a higher pH above 10. They're also sticker with our higher viscosity making them more suitable for application as a relaxer
The measurement of the thickness or spinning of a liquid that affects how the liquid flows.
Japanese thermal straightening
Sometimes called thermal reconditioning or tr. Combines the use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing.
The active ingredient is a hydroxide ion, they are very strong alkalis with a pH / 13.
Hydroxide relaxers are not compatible with what?
Thio relaxers, permanent leaving, or soft curl perm due to the difference in chemistry.
The process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair, the relaxers remove a sulfur atom form a disulfide bond and converted into lanthionine bond.
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
Are ionic compounds formed by a metal which is combined with oxygen or hydrogen
With hydroxide relaxers there is no need to mix anything and you just use as packaged.
Sodium hydroxide relaxers are commonly called what?
Lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are often advertised and sold as...
No mix no lye relaxers though they are no different than lye relaxers
Guanidine hydroxide relaxers
Are also sold as no lye relaxers though the hydroxide ion is the active ingrediant. There are two compounds and they are mixed immediately prior to use.
Also known as protective base cream, is an oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
Require the application of protective base cream to entire scalp prior to the application of relaxer.
No base relaxers
Do not require the application of a protective base cream. They contain a protective base cream that is designed to melt at body tempature. As the relaxer is applied, body heat causes the protective base cream to melt and settle out onto the scalp in a thin, oily, protective coating.
Lar What is considered an improvement about No base relaxers?
Because of the protection provided to the skin by the oils in all hydroxide relaxers.
What are the three strengths to chemical hair relaxers?
Mild, regular, and super
Mild strength relaxers
Elections are formulated for fine, color treated, damaged hair. The strength is also used for texturizing the hair, leaving some wave and curl in the hair.
Regular stregth relaxers
Intended for normal hair texture with a medium natural curl. This is the most commonly use strength and often produces a smooth, straight hair.
Super strength relaxers
Should be used for maximum straightening on very coarse, extremely curly, and resistant hair. Only select clients should use the strength.
You should periodically test the hair to do what?
To make sure it is sufficiently relaxed. You remove some product of the strand to see if it curls back up or stays straight.
Are conditioners with an acidic pH that restores the hair pH before the final nuetralizing shampoo
Keratin straightening treatments
Work by fixing the keratin in place in a semi permanent manner, they do not break bonds.
Curl reforming does what to the hair?
Does not straighten it simply make existing curl looser and larger.
Soft curl permanent
Is a thio based chemical service thar reforma curly and wavy hair into looser and larger curls and waves.
For thio relaxer retouch whar do you begin doing?
Begin application of the relaxer in the most resistant areas. This is usually the back of the head or under the occipital bone
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