How long did the era of the samurai last before the emperor was restored to power in 1868?
The samurai had elaborate culture and a code of conduct and were expected to be what?
Honest, brave and intensly loyal to their lord
Would a samurai kill themselves with their own sword rather than to lose face or personal honor?
Who led the military government established by Minamoto Yoritomo?
A Shogun: who is the commander-in-chief
What did the samurai pledged in return for being appointed offices and grants of land as rewards?
The samurai pledged to serve and protect the shogun
What did the daimyos expect to be rewarded for their obedience and loyalty to the shogun?
Land, money or administrative offices
How long was the bloody warfare did it take for skilled generals to defeat their rival daimyos?
A century (100 years)
What did the samurai wear under his armor?
A colorful robe called a KIMONO, baggy trousers and shinguards
Why did the samuari burn incense in his helmet?
His head would smell sweet if it were cut off in battle
The samurai carried 2 types of swords what were they and how were they used?
Long sword with a curved blade was used for fighting and a shorter sword was used for cutting off heads
During military training what skills were the samurai required to extensively train in?
Archery masters, art of fencing or swordsmanship, and martial arts
Archery masters taught the samurai what?
Taught them mental and physical techniques that allowed the samuarai to shoot accurately without thinking
What did the samurai have to learn while being taught the art of fencing?
How to force an enemy to make the first move, stay out of range of enemy sword and to fight in tight spaces
During battle what would a samurai do if he lost or break his sword?
The samurai would use martial arts or continue to fight by using other objects as weapons
What did the samurai do when there was a battle?
Messengers met to decide the time and place of combat, two armies faced each other, shouted and then fought after finding an opponent of the same rank.
When the two opposing armies faced each other what would they shout?
The samurai would shout their names, ancestors, heroic deeds and reason for fighting
What did the samurai do after winning the battle?
Cut off the heads of the opponents, clean them, mount the heads on boards to present for inspection as proof
What were the samurai's rewarded with after the ceremony of showing the warlord the heads?
Swords, horses, armor or land
What did mental training include?
Learning self-control and to always be alert and prepared to fight
What did training in Self-control include?
Learning how to endure pain and suffering, overcome the fear of death
What did training in Preparedness include?
Samurai could never relax, had to develop a 'sixth sense' about danger
During the peacefull 17th century what were the samurai expected to be students of also?
Students of culture which included writing and literature
What did the samurai practice while studying culture?
Wrote in calligraphy (beautiful writing), wrote poetry by writing in haiku (short poems)
What did the Tea Ceremony foster?
A spirit of harmony, reverence and calm. It also served as a way to form political alliances among samurai
What did the Amida Buddhist believe?
They believed that all people could reach paradise by relying on the mercy of Amida Budda
Who was Amida?
Amida had been an Indian prince who had set up a western paradise called the Pure Land
How did Honen say that believers could enter the Pure Land?
By prayerfully repeating Amida's namve over 70,000 times a day and when they died Amida and bodhisattvas would escort them into the Pure Land
What did Honen's disciple Shinran do?
He taught that believers could reach the western paradise by sincerely saying Amida's name only once
Why did Zen Buddhism appeal to many samurai?
It emphasis on effort and discipline and stressed self-reliance and achieving elightenment through meditation
How did Zen Buddhists reach enlightenment?
Zen Buddhist meditated for hours, sitting erect and cross-legged without moving, giving up everyday, logical thinking
What would masters do to jolt the mind into enlightenment?
Masters posed puzzling questions called Koans.
What did rock gardens symbolize?
Symbolized nature. Rocks in sand might represent islands in the sea
Why was Zen Buddhism a good match for the samurai way of life?
It helped samurai learn discipline, focus their minds, and overcome their fear of death
During the 17th century what was the Code of Bushido?
"The Way of the Warrior", the code governed a samurai's life and called on the samurai to be honest, fair, and fearless in the face of death
What was the samurai's supreme duty?
To be so loyal to his lord that he would die for him. They also were expected to guard their personal honor
What was a ritual suicide called?
Seppuku, which is the price to be paid for failing to live up to the code of Bushido
What did the samurai woman, Koman, do?
She saved her clan's banner by swimmng to shore under a shower of arrows with the banner in her teeth
During the 17th century who were the women expected to obey?
When young, obey their fathers, when grown obey their husbands, when old obey their sons
What did Tomoe Gozen do in battle?
She killed several enemies in battle and killed the enemy leader by cutting off his head
How were Japan and Europe Middle ages alike?
Ties of loyalty and obligation bound lords and vassals. Both had rulers who rose to power as military chiefs.
Why were the daimyos of Japan were like the landholding lords of Europe?
Because foth types of lords built casteles and held estates that were worked by peasants
How did the military leaders rule in Europe and in Japan?
In Europe, a military leader, William the Conqueror ruled as king, In Japan, the shogun ruled in the name of the emperor
What were the codes for the Europeans and Japanes?
The Europeans had a code of chivarly and the Japanese had the code of Bushido