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Chap 32 Female Reproductive System

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What is the function of the female reproductive system?
Produce offspring and thereby ensure continuity of the genetic code
The female reproductive organs can be classifies as what?
-Essential Organs
-Accessory Organs
The essential organs of reproduction in a woman are what?
Gonads; Paired Ovaries
What is produced by the Ovaries (gonads)?
Female Gametes or Ova
Unlike the Male reproductive system the Female reproductive system can also provide what?
Provide nutrition and protection to the offspring for up to several years after conception
What are the ducts or duct structures that extend from the ovaries to the exterior?
Internal genitals
What comprises the accessory organs of the female reproductive system?
-Internal Genitalia
-External Genitalia
-Additional sex glands such as the mammary glands
What comprises the Internal Genitalia?
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
Uterus
Vagina
(ducts or duct structures that extend from the ovaries to the exterior)
What is the skin-covered region between the vaginal orifice and the anus that extends from the symphysis pubis anteriorly to the coccyx posteriorly?
Perineum
What is the most lateral boundary of the Perineum?
On either side of the ischial tuberosity
What can be torn during child birth?
Perineum
What 2 triangles is the Perineum comprised of?
-Urogential triangle (contains external genitalia
-Anal triangle (contains the anus)
Tears in the perineum can cause what?
Irregular edges, seepage from the rectum and partial uterine or vaginal prolapses
What is performed to avoid the tear and improve healing of the Perineum?
Episiotomy
What is homologous to the testes in males?
Ovaries
What are nodular glands after puberty that resemble large almonds in size and shape?
Ovaries
Where are the Ovaries located?
On each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
What ligament attaches the ovary to the broad ligament?
Mesovarian Ligament
What ligament attaches ovary to uterus
Ovarian Ligament
What is the development of the fetus in a place other than the uterus?
Ectopic Pregnancy
The surface of the ovaries is covered by what?
Germinal Epithelium
What do not attach directly to the ovary?
Uterine tube cup (fallopian tubes)
The distal portion of the uterine tube curves over what?
Ovary
Ovarys consist of what two layers?
-Outer cortex
-Inner medulla
The outer cortex of the ovaries has a surface layer of raised squamous shaped epithelial cells covered by what?
Germinal epithelium
Deep to the germinal epithelium is a connective tissue layer that covers the ovarian cortex and is called what?
Tunica Albuginea
Scattered throughout the Ovary and embedded in the connective tissue matrix are thousands of what?
Ovarian Follicles
Ovarian follicles contain what?
Immature female sex cells (oocytes) and their surrounding cells.
Ovarian medulla contain what?
Supportive connective tissue cells, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
What is an oocyte released from the ovary
Ovum
What is the process that results in formation of a mature egg?
Oogenesis
What is the rupture of an ovarian follicle and release of an ovum?
Ovulation
What do the Ovaries secrete?
Secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone)
Know the stages of the ovarian follicle development:
Page 1132; slide 37-41
What is a function of the ovaries?
Egg production
What is a rupture of an ovarian follicle and release of an ovum?
Ovulation
The ovum moves into what, where it may draw a sperm cell into it become fertilized?
Uterine tube
Ovaries are also endocrine organs, secreting what?
Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone that help regulate reproductive function in females.
What is the size of the Uterus?
7.5cm long and 5 cm wide, 3 cm in thickness
What is the pear-shaped structure that consists of two main parts?
Uterus
What 2 parts make up the Uterus?
-Cervix
-Body
What is the narrow neck part of the Uterus?
Cervix
The wall of Uterus is composed of what three layers?
-Inner Endometrium
-Middle Myometrium
-Outer incomplete layer of Parietal Peritoneum
The Endometrium of the Uterus is composed of what 3 layers of tissue?
-Stratum compactum (innermost)
-Stratum spongiosum (middle layer)
-Stratum basale (dense layer attached to myometrium)
What is a compact surface layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of ciliated, simple columnar epithelium called?
Stratum compactum (innermost layer of Endometrium of the Uterus)
What is the spongy middle layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of loose connective tissue called?
Stratum Spongiosum
What is the dense inner layer called that attaches the Endometrium to the Myometrium?
Stratum Basale
What parts of the Uterus slough off during menstruation and childbirth?
-Stratum Compactum
-Stratum Spongiosum
What consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers extending in all directions that gives the uterus great strength?
Myometrium
What is the external layer of serous membrane that is incomplete and only covers part of the body of the uterus and not the cervix?
Partietal Peritonum
The cavities of uterus are small due to what?
Due to the thickness of the uterine walls
What is the triangular, flat cavity except where the cervix joins the body?
Uterus
The apex of the Uterus is directed downward and constitutes what?
The Internal os
The Internal os opens up into what?
Cervical Canal
Cervical canal is constricted at its lower end of the Uterus to form what opening into the vagina?
The External os
The Uterus receives blood from what supply's?
-Uterine arteries
-Internal iliac arteries
-Ovarian and vaginal arteries (reach the Uterus by anatomosis with the uterine vessels)
Uterine, ovarian, and vaginal veins return venous blood to what?
Internal Iliac veins
What is the location of the Uterus?
Located in pelvic cavity between urinary bladder and rectum
What is the position of Uterus?
-Normally anteflexed
-Flexed forward over the bladder
-Cervix joins the vagina at right angle pointing the cervix downward and backward from the point of flexion
What postion is the Uterus in when it is flexed backward and may allow the uterus to prolapse or descend?
Retroflexion
What occurs when the Uterus descends into vaginal canal?
Prolapse
How many Uterine ligaments hold the uterus in place but allow some movement?
8
What are the different 8 uterine ligaments?
-2 Broad ligaments - form a partition across the pelvic cavity.
-2 Uterosacral ligaments - foldlike extensions of the peritoneum from the posterior surface of the uterus to the rectum
-Posterior ligament
-Anterior ligament
-2 Round ligaments
What are the folds of peritoneum extending from the posterior surface to the uterus to the rectum?
Posterior ligament
What are formed by the extension of the peritoneum and anterior surface of the uterus?
Anterior ligament
What are the fibromuscular cords extending from the upper outer angles of the uterus through the inguinal canals?
2 Round ligaments
What is the functions of the uterus?
Part of reproductive tract, permits sperm to ascend toward uterine tubes
If conception occurs an offspring develops where?
In the Uterus
The embryo is supplied with nutrients by what until the production of the placenta?
Endometrial glands
What is an organ that permits exchange of materials between mother's blood and fetal blood but keeps the two circulations separate?
Placenta
What type of contractions occur during labor and help push the offspring out of mother's body?
Myometrial contractions
If conception does not occur, what is shed?
Outer layers of endometrium are shed during menstruation
What is a cyclical event that allows the endometrium to renew itself?
Menstruation
The Uterine tubes are also called what?
Fallopian tubes, or Oviducts
What is the size of the Uterine tubes?
About 10cm (4 inches)
What are the Uterine tubes attaced to?
Attached to the uterus at its upper outer angles
What lie in the upper free margin of the broad ligament and extend upward and outward toward sides of pelvis?
Uterine tubes
What are the 3 layers of the Uterine tubes?
-Mucous (directly continuous with the peritoneum lining the pelvic cavity)
-Smooth muscle
-Serous lining
What can be infected due to Tubal mucosa being continuous with the vagina and uterus?
Uterine tubes
What is inflammation of the Uterine tubes?
Salpingitis
What is inflammation of the peritoneum?
Peritonitis
The Uterine Tubes have what three divisions?
Isthmus - Upper outer angle of the uterus joins the uterus
Ampulla - Dilated middle part
Infundibulum- Funnel-shaped terminal component above and lateral over the ovary, opens to the peritoneal cavity
What are the fringe like projections off of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes?
Fimbriae
What are the functions of the Uterine tubes?
-Serve as transport channels for ova
-Site of fertilization
-Their secretions nurture the ovum during its migration into the endometrial cavity
What is located between the rectum, the urethra, and the bladder, which lie anterior to it?
Vagina
What is the size of the Vagina?
Collapsible tube about 7 or 8 cm long capable of distention
What is composed of smooth muscle, and lined with mucous membrane arranged in rugae?
Vagina
Which wall of the Vagina is shorter than the other?
Anterior wall is shorter than posterior wall because cervix protrudes into its uppermost portion
What part of the Vagina extends around the cervix?
Fornix
What is a mucous membrane that partially to completely covers the vaginal orifice and forms a border around the external opening?
Hymen
What are the functions of the Vagina?
-Lubricates and stimulates the glans penis during sex
-Receptacle for semen
-Lower portion of the birth canal
-Transports tissue and blood shed during menstruation to the exterior
What comprises the Vulva or external genitalia?
-Mons Pubis
-Libia Majora
-Libia Minora
-Clitoris
-Urinary Meatus
-Vaginal Orifice
-Barholin's (or greater vestibular glands)
What is the skin covered pad of fat over the symphysis pubis?
Mons pubis
What part of the external genitalia is composed mainly of fat and connective tissue with sweat and sebaceous glands?
Labia majora
What part of the external genitalia is located medial to the labia majora and come together anteriorly to form the vestibule?
Labia minora
What is composed of erectile tissue located just behind the junction of the labia minora?
Clitoris
What is the small opening of the urethra?
Urinary meatus
What is the opening that is posterior to the urethra meatus?
Vaginal orifice
What are the 2 bean shaped glands slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina?
Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands)
What are the glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. (female prostate gland)?
Lesser vestibular glands (Skene's glands)
What protect the clitoris and vestibule?
Mons pubis and labia
What is the boundary between the internal and external genital?
Vaginal orifice
What control breast development?
Estrogens and progesterone
Breast size is determined by what?
Amount of fat around glandular tissue
How many lobes are there per breast?
15-20
Ducts of mammary glands (alveoli) in each lobe connect to form what?
A single Lacteriferous duct
Distal on the lacteriferous ducts is a swelling or what?
Lacteriferous sinus
Lacteriferous ducts terminate as what?
Opening on the nipple surface
What is the function of mammary glands?
Lactation
What promotes breast duct development?
Estrogen
What stimulates mammary gland alveoli development?
Progesterone
Shedding of placenta results in a decrease of estrogens and stimulates what?
Prolactin
What stimulates lactation and milk secretion?
Prolactin
What stimulates ejection of milk?
Oxytocin
Suckling stimulates secretion of what?
Prolactin and Oxytocin
What are some advantages of breast feeding?
-Nutrients
-Passive immunity from antibodies present in colostrum and milk
-Emotional bonding between mother and child
What is the onset of menses?
Menarche
Cessation of menses is what?
Menopause
What are the connective tissue of the breast that help support the glandular and connective tissues of the entire breast structure?
Suspensory ligaments (of Cooper)
Ovaries from birth contain what?
Oocytes in primary follicles in which the meiotic process has been suspended
At the beginning of menstruation each month what occur with several of the oocytes?
Resume meiosis
When will Meiosis stop again after starting during menstruation?
Just before the cell is released during ovulation
Meiosis is completed only if what occurs?
Fertilization occurs
Follicular cells ruptured follicle forms what?
Corpus luteum
Corpus luteum produces what?
Progesterone
If no fertilization occurs what happens?
Menstruation occurs
The Menstrual cycle is divided into what four phases?
-Menses (Days 1-5) -First phase of menses
-Postmenstrual phase (Days 6-13) -(estrogenic or follicular phase)
-Ovulation-(Day 14) - rupture of the mature follicle and expulsion of its ovum
-Premenstrual phase (Days 15-28) or postovulatory phase
What are muscular contraction of uterus for 2 weeks before ovulation?
Myometrial phase
What occurs during the Gonadotropic cycle?
Anterior pituitary gland secretes 2 hormones
-FSH
-LH
Low levels of what cause regression of the corpus luteum?
-FSH
-LH
What is the Ovarian cycle's primary function?
To produce an ovum at regular intervals
Secondary function of Ovarian cycle is to what?
Regulate endometrial cycle through estrogen and progesterone
What is the function of endometrial cycle?
To make uterus suitable for implantation of an embryo if fertilization occurs
What is defined as failure to conceive after 1 year of regular unprotected intercourse?
Infertility
Menopause occurs usually between what ages?
40-50
Menarche occurs around what age?
13 (menstruation continues every 28 days for decades)
What is caused by high concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 cause painful spasms by decreasing blood flow and oxygen to uterine muscles?
Dysmenorrhea
What is caused by hormone imbalances, genetic disorders, brain lesions and deformity of reproductive organs?
Amenorrhea
What is irregular or excessive uterine bleeding caused by structural problems or hormone imbalances?
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)