What is a compact surface layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of ciliated, simple columnar epithelium called?
Stratum compactum (innermost layer of Endometrium of the Uterus)
What is the spongy middle layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of loose connective tissue called?
What is the dense inner layer called that attaches the Endometrium to the Myometrium?
What parts of the Uterus slough off during menstruation and childbirth?
-Stratum Compactum -Stratum Spongiosum
What consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers extending in all directions that gives the uterus great strength?
What is the external layer of serous membrane that is incomplete and only covers part of the body of the uterus and not the cervix?
The cavities of uterus are small due to what?
Due to the thickness of the uterine walls
What is the triangular, flat cavity except where the cervix joins the body?
The apex of the Uterus is directed downward and constitutes what?
The Internal os
The Internal os opens up into what?
Cervical canal is constricted at its lower end of the Uterus to form what opening into the vagina?
The External os
The Uterus receives blood from what supply's?
-Uterine arteries -Internal iliac arteries -Ovarian and vaginal arteries (reach the Uterus by anatomosis with the uterine vessels)
Uterine, ovarian, and vaginal veins return venous blood to what?
Internal Iliac veins
What is the location of the Uterus?
Located in pelvic cavity between urinary bladder and rectum
What is the position of Uterus?
-Normally anteflexed -Flexed forward over the bladder -Cervix joins the vagina at right angle pointing the cervix downward and backward from the point of flexion
What postion is the Uterus in when it is flexed backward and may allow the uterus to prolapse or descend?
What occurs when the Uterus descends into vaginal canal?
How many Uterine ligaments hold the uterus in place but allow some movement?
What are the different 8 uterine ligaments?
-2 Broad ligaments - form a partition across the pelvic cavity. -2 Uterosacral ligaments - foldlike extensions of the peritoneum from the posterior surface of the uterus to the rectum -Posterior ligament -Anterior ligament -2 Round ligaments
What are the folds of peritoneum extending from the posterior surface to the uterus to the rectum?
What are formed by the extension of the peritoneum and anterior surface of the uterus?
What are the fibromuscular cords extending from the upper outer angles of the uterus through the inguinal canals?
2 Round ligaments
What is the functions of the uterus?
Part of reproductive tract, permits sperm to ascend toward uterine tubes
If conception occurs an offspring develops where?
In the Uterus
The embryo is supplied with nutrients by what until the production of the placenta?
What is an organ that permits exchange of materials between mother's blood and fetal blood but keeps the two circulations separate?
What type of contractions occur during labor and help push the offspring out of mother's body?
If conception does not occur, what is shed?
Outer layers of endometrium are shed during menstruation
What is a cyclical event that allows the endometrium to renew itself?
The Uterine tubes are also called what?
Fallopian tubes, or Oviducts
What is the size of the Uterine tubes?
About 10cm (4 inches)
What are the Uterine tubes attaced to?
Attached to the uterus at its upper outer angles
What lie in the upper free margin of the broad ligament and extend upward and outward toward sides of pelvis?
What are the 3 layers of the Uterine tubes?
-Mucous (directly continuous with the peritoneum lining the pelvic cavity) -Smooth muscle -Serous lining
What can be infected due to Tubal mucosa being continuous with the vagina and uterus?
What is inflammation of the Uterine tubes?
What is inflammation of the peritoneum?
The Uterine Tubes have what three divisions?
Isthmus - Upper outer angle of the uterus joins the uterus Ampulla - Dilated middle part Infundibulum- Funnel-shaped terminal component above and lateral over the ovary, opens to the peritoneal cavity
What are the fringe like projections off of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes?
What are the functions of the Uterine tubes?
-Serve as transport channels for ova -Site of fertilization -Their secretions nurture the ovum during its migration into the endometrial cavity
What is located between the rectum, the urethra, and the bladder, which lie anterior to it?
What is the size of the Vagina?
Collapsible tube about 7 or 8 cm long capable of distention
What is composed of smooth muscle, and lined with mucous membrane arranged in rugae?
Which wall of the Vagina is shorter than the other?
Anterior wall is shorter than posterior wall because cervix protrudes into its uppermost portion
What part of the Vagina extends around the cervix?
What is a mucous membrane that partially to completely covers the vaginal orifice and forms a border around the external opening?
What are the functions of the Vagina?
-Lubricates and stimulates the glans penis during sex -Receptacle for semen -Lower portion of the birth canal -Transports tissue and blood shed during menstruation to the exterior
What is the skin covered pad of fat over the symphysis pubis?
What part of the external genitalia is composed mainly of fat and connective tissue with sweat and sebaceous glands?
What part of the external genitalia is located medial to the labia majora and come together anteriorly to form the vestibule?
What is composed of erectile tissue located just behind the junction of the labia minora?
What is the small opening of the urethra?
What is the opening that is posterior to the urethra meatus?
What are the 2 bean shaped glands slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina?
Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands)
What are the glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. (female prostate gland)?
Lesser vestibular glands (Skene's glands)
What protect the clitoris and vestibule?
Mons pubis and labia
What is the boundary between the internal and external genital?
What control breast development?
Estrogens and progesterone
Breast size is determined by what?
Amount of fat around glandular tissue
How many lobes are there per breast?
Ducts of mammary glands (alveoli) in each lobe connect to form what?
A single Lacteriferous duct
Distal on the lacteriferous ducts is a swelling or what?
Lacteriferous ducts terminate as what?
Opening on the nipple surface
What is the function of mammary glands?
What promotes breast duct development?
What stimulates mammary gland alveoli development?
Shedding of placenta results in a decrease of estrogens and stimulates what?
What stimulates lactation and milk secretion?
What stimulates ejection of milk?
Suckling stimulates secretion of what?
Prolactin and Oxytocin
What are some advantages of breast feeding?
-Nutrients -Passive immunity from antibodies present in colostrum and milk -Emotional bonding between mother and child
What is the onset of menses?
Cessation of menses is what?
What are the connective tissue of the breast that help support the glandular and connective tissues of the entire breast structure?
Suspensory ligaments (of Cooper)
Ovaries from birth contain what?
Oocytes in primary follicles in which the meiotic process has been suspended
At the beginning of menstruation each month what occur with several of the oocytes?
When will Meiosis stop again after starting during menstruation?
Just before the cell is released during ovulation
Meiosis is completed only if what occurs?
Follicular cells ruptured follicle forms what?
Corpus luteum produces what?
If no fertilization occurs what happens?
The Menstrual cycle is divided into what four phases?
-Menses (Days 1-5) -First phase of menses -Postmenstrual phase (Days 6-13) -(estrogenic or follicular phase) -Ovulation-(Day 14) - rupture of the mature follicle and expulsion of its ovum -Premenstrual phase (Days 15-28) or postovulatory phase
What are muscular contraction of uterus for 2 weeks before ovulation?