What is the function of the female reproductive system?
Produce offspring and thereby ensure continuity of the genetic code
Unlike the Male reproductive system the Female reproductive system can also provide what?
Provide nutrition and protection to the offspring for up to several years after conception
What are the ducts or duct structures that extend from the ovaries to the exterior?
What comprises the accessory organs of the female reproductive system?
-Additional sex glands such as the mammary glands
What comprises the Internal Genitalia?
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
(ducts or duct structures that extend from the ovaries to the exterior)
What is the skin-covered region between the vaginal orifice and the anus that extends from the symphysis pubis anteriorly to the coccyx posteriorly?
What 2 triangles is the Perineum comprised of?
-Urogential triangle (contains external genitalia
-Anal triangle (contains the anus)
Tears in the perineum can cause what?
Irregular edges, seepage from the rectum and partial uterine or vaginal prolapses
The outer cortex of the ovaries has a surface layer of raised squamous shaped epithelial cells covered by what?
Deep to the germinal epithelium is a connective tissue layer that covers the ovarian cortex and is called what?
Scattered throughout the Ovary and embedded in the connective tissue matrix are thousands of what?
Ovarian medulla contain what?
Supportive connective tissue cells, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
Ovaries are also endocrine organs, secreting what?
Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone that help regulate reproductive function in females.
The wall of Uterus is composed of what three layers?
-Outer incomplete layer of Parietal Peritoneum
The Endometrium of the Uterus is composed of what 3 layers of tissue?
-Stratum compactum (innermost)
-Stratum spongiosum (middle layer)
-Stratum basale (dense layer attached to myometrium)
What is a compact surface layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of ciliated, simple columnar epithelium called?
Stratum compactum (innermost layer of Endometrium of the Uterus)
What is the spongy middle layer of the Endometrium of the Uterus that is composed of loose connective tissue called?
What is the dense inner layer called that attaches the Endometrium to the Myometrium?
What parts of the Uterus slough off during menstruation and childbirth?
What consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers extending in all directions that gives the uterus great strength?
What is the external layer of serous membrane that is incomplete and only covers part of the body of the uterus and not the cervix?
Cervical canal is constricted at its lower end of the Uterus to form what opening into the vagina?
The External os
The Uterus receives blood from what supply's?
-Internal iliac arteries
-Ovarian and vaginal arteries (reach the Uterus by anatomosis with the uterine vessels)
What is the position of Uterus?
-Flexed forward over the bladder
-Cervix joins the vagina at right angle pointing the cervix downward and backward from the point of flexion
What postion is the Uterus in when it is flexed backward and may allow the uterus to prolapse or descend?
What are the different 8 uterine ligaments?
-2 Broad ligaments - form a partition across the pelvic cavity.
-2 Uterosacral ligaments - foldlike extensions of the peritoneum from the posterior surface of the uterus to the rectum
-2 Round ligaments
What are the folds of peritoneum extending from the posterior surface to the uterus to the rectum?
What are formed by the extension of the peritoneum and anterior surface of the uterus?
What are the fibromuscular cords extending from the upper outer angles of the uterus through the inguinal canals?
2 Round ligaments
What is the functions of the uterus?
Part of reproductive tract, permits sperm to ascend toward uterine tubes
The embryo is supplied with nutrients by what until the production of the placenta?
What is an organ that permits exchange of materials between mother's blood and fetal blood but keeps the two circulations separate?
What type of contractions occur during labor and help push the offspring out of mother's body?
If conception does not occur, what is shed?
Outer layers of endometrium are shed during menstruation
What lie in the upper free margin of the broad ligament and extend upward and outward toward sides of pelvis?
What are the 3 layers of the Uterine tubes?
-Mucous (directly continuous with the peritoneum lining the pelvic cavity)
The Uterine Tubes have what three divisions?
Isthmus - Upper outer angle of the uterus joins the uterus
Ampulla - Dilated middle part
Infundibulum- Funnel-shaped terminal component above and lateral over the ovary, opens to the peritoneal cavity
What are the functions of the Uterine tubes?
-Serve as transport channels for ova
-Site of fertilization
-Their secretions nurture the ovum during its migration into the endometrial cavity
Which wall of the Vagina is shorter than the other?
Anterior wall is shorter than posterior wall because cervix protrudes into its uppermost portion
What is a mucous membrane that partially to completely covers the vaginal orifice and forms a border around the external opening?
What are the functions of the Vagina?
-Lubricates and stimulates the glans penis during sex
-Receptacle for semen
-Lower portion of the birth canal
-Transports tissue and blood shed during menstruation to the exterior
What comprises the Vulva or external genitalia?
-Barholin's (or greater vestibular glands)
What part of the external genitalia is composed mainly of fat and connective tissue with sweat and sebaceous glands?
What part of the external genitalia is located medial to the labia majora and come together anteriorly to form the vestibule?
What are the 2 bean shaped glands slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina?
Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands)
What are the glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. (female prostate gland)?
Lesser vestibular glands (Skene's glands)
What are some advantages of breast feeding?
-Passive immunity from antibodies present in colostrum and milk
-Emotional bonding between mother and child
What are the connective tissue of the breast that help support the glandular and connective tissues of the entire breast structure?
Suspensory ligaments (of Cooper)
Ovaries from birth contain what?
Oocytes in primary follicles in which the meiotic process has been suspended
When will Meiosis stop again after starting during menstruation?
Just before the cell is released during ovulation
The Menstrual cycle is divided into what four phases?
-Menses (Days 1-5) -First phase of menses
-Postmenstrual phase (Days 6-13) -(estrogenic or follicular phase)
-Ovulation-(Day 14) - rupture of the mature follicle and expulsion of its ovum
-Premenstrual phase (Days 15-28) or postovulatory phase
Secondary function of Ovarian cycle is to what?
Regulate endometrial cycle through estrogen and progesterone
What is the function of endometrial cycle?
To make uterus suitable for implantation of an embryo if fertilization occurs
What is caused by high concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 cause painful spasms by decreasing blood flow and oxygen to uterine muscles?
What is caused by hormone imbalances, genetic disorders, brain lesions and deformity of reproductive organs?