Upgrade to remove ads
Social Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (51)
Counter attitudinal thinking
Thinking that is against what your normal attitude is
Cognitive Dissonance theory
Leon Festinger, You feel good when you're aware of constant cognitions, which are beliefs that are compatible with each other. You feel bad when you have dissonant cognitions, which are feelings that are not consistent with each other. The discomfort you feel motivates you to do something to alleviate the discomfort. Add constant cognition, add a statement that justifies behavior.
Induced compliance paradigm
Get people to act or comply with behaviors that are inconsistent with their usual behavior
Effort Justification paradigm
Get people to invest time into a goal that may not be worth while
Free Choice paradigm
Get people to choose between two or more alternatives
Cognitive response theory
Theory that the impact of a message is based on the interpretation of the message
Hard sell- providing information on the good qualities of a product
Soft sell- Advertising using symbols, emotions and images to sell the product
Protection motivation theory
Theory that discusses how threats can motivate attitudes and behavior
People will change when they are motivated to protect themselves
1. Problem is severe
2. You are susceptible to the problem
3. The recommended behaviors will help prevent the problem
4. You are capable of performing the recommended behaviors
Way to build resistance against persuasion
Expose people to arguments against their opinion and enable them to refute the attack
Based on medical inoculation
Change in behavior caused by a person or group
Change in behavior requested by a person or group
Influence from another motivated by being correct or having accurate information
Influence by others to gain rewards and avoid punishment
Rule or guideline in society that says what behaviors are appropriate
Participants were given different lines and told to say which was longer. There was one confederate who was not part of the rest of the group. Everyone gave the wrong answer and the researchers tried to see if the confederate would follow with the wrong answer. 23% gave the right answer, 77% went along with the group once, 45% always went along with the group.
Done at Yale. Participants were given questions to ask a person behind a wall. If the person behind the wall got the answer wrong they were instructed to electrocute them. Every answer they got wrong they increased the shock. 65% went along with the whole experiment in the first study, 62.5% in the second, 40% in the third, 30% in the fourth.
Terror management theory
Jeff Greenberg, Sheldon Solomon, and Tom
Awareness of death creates fear and this motivates us. We cope with this by conforming to societal trends and norms.
Negative attitude towards groups and is strongly held.
Negative attitude towards a group based on membership.
Modern kind of racism where people don't think they are racist but harbor their own negative views.
A type of schema where one believes that a group of people all share certain characteristics.
Theory that prejudice occurs because people use weaker groups to take out their frustrations.
Robber Cave's Experiment
Two groups of eleven year old boys were told they were running a race. Immediately there was anxiety and hostility between the two groups, as well as prejudice against one another.
Social Identity Theory
People create negative opinions about an outgroup to make their own group seem more superior
When other people are present people perform better on simple tasks and worse on more difficult tasks.
The reduction of effort one puts into a group project when individual effort is unidentifiable
The time where a person becomes emerged in a group and loses their sense of identity
Activities which reflect all of the group members' effort
Tasks where the group depends on the least talented member's abilities
Tasks that depend on the most talented member of the group
A way that groups make decisions where the need to agree leads to poor decisions.
Increases the leaning of the group towards a specific stance. If most people in a group believe something then the group is most likely to be swayed in the direction of the majority of the group.
Behavior that could injure someone psychologically or physically
Boys are more likely to use physical aggression
Girls are more likely to use relational aggression
Harm that arises from anger, frustration, or hatred
Aggression motivated by hurting someone in order to gain something of value
Aggression that is intended to hurt someone's peer relationships
Aggression that is intended to cause serious injury
General aggression model
Talks about how aggressive responses are a result of psychological processing. People who look at things in terms of aggressive behavior are more likely to respond aggressively
The idea that physical arousal can be a result of something other than frustration or anger can be related to anger thoughts and cognitions
Social learning theory
The theory that people learn behaviors by watching others. We observe these behaviors and figure out whether they will be rewarded or punished.
Alcohol can cause cues to someone's aggression and thus make them aggressive while under the influence of alcohol
Deadly assaults occur more often in the hotter weather because it creates discomfort which can lead to frustration and anger
Watched 500 8-9 year olds and studied their reactions to characters on TV. Researchers found that the children identified more with the more aggressive characters. They followed these children for fifteen years and these results predicted aggression.
There is a correlation between violent video games and aggression.
Porn has skewed people's minds into believing inaccuracies about sex which lead to things like aggressiveness in the bedroom.
Flashing a word to a participant which makes them create an idea of the word in their mind subconsciously.
When people asses their looks in a positive or negative way
Reverse to the forces acting on group members to stay in the group
This occurs when a member or members of the group feel threatened by their in-group
Self-presentation is important in this idea because it talks about how people try to impress one another to avoid feeling threatened
Implicit attitudes- In favor of the issue at hand
Explicit Attitudes- Against the issue at hand
When people in our society reject us
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Bundle: A Concise Introduction To Logic Aplia 1 Term Printed Access Card
Patrick J. Hurley
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Sets with similar terms
MIDTERM 2 PSY 340
AP Psych Unit 14 Key Terms
Psychology and Life: Chapter 16
Other sets by this creator
Social Psych (Liking, Loving, and Close Relationsh…
Social Psych 3 (Helping Social Behavior)
Addiction Final (Choice)
Abnormal Psych Final