Morphological Terms - DipTESOL Unit 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Where to place morpheme?
Unsure about where to place a morpheme division? Concentrate on the pronunciation of morphemes, separately and together. Do not be afraid to produce morphemes with odd-looking spellings.
Morpheme
identifiable from one word to another in a consistent fashion (i.e. in similar positions) / also contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word
Grapheme
The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
Simple, or mono-morphemic words
Words that carry meaning alone and can not be reduced;
Red, Yellow, Fool
Free Morpheme
Morpheme that occur/function alone (simple words); cannot be broken down further
e.g. Red, Yellow, Fool
Complex or polymorphemic words
Words that can be reduced and have additional morphemes that change or enhance the meaning
e.g Reddish (Red), Yellowish (Yellow), Foolish (Fool)
Core morpheme, or stem
One morpheme that contributes to the meaning of the word as a whole
e.g. act > actor; scien > science/scientific
Bound Morpheme
Cannot be found on their own, they must accompany a core morpheme; changes meaning of morpheme
e.g. -ific (scientific)
Are lexical or core morphemes always free?
No; Latin words can rarely be isolated as true words;
e.g. Policy, Politics, Political, Politician, Politicise - Poli
Affix
Something that changes the word - beginning, middle, end
e.g. happy > unhappy; happy > happily
Prefix
Bound morpheme that comes at the beginning
e.g. sure - unsure
Suffix
Bound morpheme that comes at the end
e.g. sure > surely
Inflectional Morphemes
All suffixes; minimal change; insert words into particular grammatical contexts (past, plural etc)
e.g WorkED catS walkING speakS John'S fastER slowEST
Derivational Morphemes
Prefix or Suffix; considerable semantic change; derive new words; changes word, often word class;
e.g. modern (adj.) > modernise (v.); drink (v.) > drinkable (adj.)
Allomorphs
Different surface realisations (phonological) of what is essentially the same thing, (plural marker)
e.g. cats/kæts/ dogs/dɒgz/ horses/ˈhɔ:sɪz/
Suppletion
Complete change of word form beyond phonological variation of basic stem
e.g. go > went
Homophones
Words with different meanings and spelling but pronounced the same
i.e blew and blue
Homonym
Words that are pronounced or spelt the same but have different meaning
e.g. 'fine' (n/v - money) 'fine' (adj - mood); Pole (adj) pole (n)
Hypernym
Top level class of words
e.g. tree, pets, food
Hyponym
Specific member of hypernym class
e.g. birch, pine, oak (tree); cat, dog, hamster (pets)
Collocations
Two or more words that typically go together
e.g. heavy rain, fast food, have a coffee
Lexico grammar
The interdependence of and continuity between lexis and grammar
Polyseme
A word with multiple meanings that are related
Connotation
Ideas or qualities that a word invokes; second/associated meaning
e.g. discipline : crime, prison, wrong/right
Phrasal Verb
A verb combined with either a preposition/adverb or both to form a word with it's own meaning different from the original verb;
e.g. get up, take off, turn up
multi-word unit
A phrase or idiomatic expression that can only be understood as a whole; individual words do not (necessarily) help with understanding;
e.g. to break a leg, to spill the beans, to chicken out
Lexical Priming
When lexis is encountered, it occurs along with other words (its collocates). You expect it to appear in a similar context/the same grammar in the future; influences the way you use the lexis in your own speech and writing.
Infix
An affix inserted into the middle of a word to form new word or intensify
Lexical sets
A group of words with the same topic, function or form.
e.g. 'Cat, dog, tortoise, goldfish' = topical lexical set 'pets' 'quickly, happily, completely = the syntactic lexical adverbs.
Lexical chunk
A group of words that are commonly found together.
e.g. Fair enough ; do you think so?
Register
Level and style of language usually appropriate to the situation/circumstances