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68 terms

Texas 1-Ch 6

We the People: Eighth Texas Edition
STUDY
PLAY
Political Influences
The Family
Social Groups
Differences in Education
Political Conditions
Elisebeth Noelle-Neumann
Psychologist
Spiral of Silence
Conscious or unconscious acceptance of a groups beliefs and opinions
Gender Gap
A distinct pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men
Agencies of Socialization
Social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individual basic political beliefs and values
Political Socialization
The induction of individuals into the political culture, learning that underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is bases.
Equality of Opportunity
Should be allowed to seek personal and material success.
Linked to effort and ability
Attitude (or Opinion)
A special preference on a particular issue
Political Ideology
A cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of Gov.
Values (or Beliefs)
Basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events.
Public Opinion
Citizens attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events
Joseph Schumpter
Economist
"Public opinion was the product, not the motive power of the political process
Public opinion not the driving force in politics
Emerson Prima Snugger 52" Ceiling Fan - Brushed Steel
social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values
bandwagon effect
a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner
conservative
today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedom
illusion of saliency
the impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not
liberal
today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment
liberty
freedom from governmental control
marketplace of ideas
the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete
measurement error
failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
political efficacy
the ability to influence government and politics
probability sampling
a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
public-opinion polls
scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
push polling
a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion
random digit dialing
a polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample
salient interests
attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them
sample
a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population
sampling error
polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample
selection bias
polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates errors in over representing or under representing some opinions
The processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed are collectively called

political socialization.
public opinion.
survey research.
political learning.
political socialization.
Although political ideologies color our perspectives, they seldom fully determine our views. Why?

Most people have at least some conflicting underlying attitudes.
Individuals may have difficulty linking particular issues of personalities to their own underlying beliefs.
Most individuals' ideologies contain internal contradictions.
All of the above
All of the above
______________ are scientific instruments for measuring public opinion.

Samples
Public-opinion polls
Caucuses
Primaries
Public-opinion polls
According to the textbook, which type of equality is most prominent in the United States?

Equality of results
Output equality
Market equality
Equality of opportunity
Equality of opportunity
What is wrong with the following poll question: "Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie so that he could start a war with Iraq?"

Selection bias
Sample size
Push polling
Saliency
Push polling
What is the so-called gender gap?

Different agents of socialization for men (boys) and women (girls)
Political and voting differences between men and women
The difference between the number of men and women serving in political institutions such as Congress
Different roles for men and women enlisted in the military (women generally not serving in combat positions)
Political and voting differences between men and women
Many states currently use which mechanism to allow public opinion to directly control policy?

The initiative and referendum
Town hall meetings
The election of state representatives
All of the above
The initiative and referendum
Which of the following is an example of a social group?

Women
A labor union
A political party
All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following is not important in determining the reliability of a poll?

Size of the population
Size of the sample
Wording of the questions
Margin of error
Size of the population
The ____________ is the interplay of opinions and views that takes place when competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular event.

economic marketplace
marketplace of ideas
political marketplace
marketplace of demographics
marketplace of ideas
On average, Americans know

less about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.
about as much about politics as the rest of the world.
more about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.
more about politics as compared to citizens of any other country.
less about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.
The _________________ are among the most powerful forces operating in the marketplace of ideas.

state and federal governments
interest groups
communications media
nation's schools
communications media
The set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which individuals come to understand and interpret politics is called

liberalism.
conservatism.
public opinion.
political ideology.
political ideology.
Recent studies by political scientists show that

Americans' knowledge of politics is generally high.
the average American exhibits little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders.
there is actually little connection between possessing political knowledge and being an effective citizen.
it is often difficult for those seeking knowledge about government to actually find such information.
the average American exhibits little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders.
Above all, a public-opinion sample must

be representative.
not be random.
consist of 10 percent of the population group.
be administered in person-to-person interviews.
be representative.
Which of the following can contribute to a lack of consistency between public opinion and governmental policy?

Politicians who care too much about public opinion
Politicians who don't care at all about public opinion
A committed majority that can override the viewpoint of the minority
A committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority
A committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority
Which of the following is a major difference between college graduates and other Americans?

College graduates have less political tolerance than Americans with less education.
College graduates are more religious than Americans with less education.
College graduates more often participate in politics, as compared to Americans with less education.
All of the above
College graduates more often participate in politics, as compared to Americans with less education.
Henry Louis Gates
...
Which of the following is the most likely cause of differences in opinion between African Americans and white Americans concerning the arrest of Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates?

The opinions of African Americans and white Americans did not in fact differ much.
African Americans and white Americans hold different political values.
African Americans and white Americans have different perspectives of and experiences with the criminal justice system.
African Americans and white Americans have different levels of irritation with college professors.
African Americans and white Americans have different perspectives of and experiences with the criminal justice system.
Which group is the most influential agent of socialization in early childhood?

Family
Schools
Peers
Media
Family
James Madison and other framers of the Constitution thought that ____________ would always be the most prevalent source of conflict in political life.

race
the inherent gulf between the rich and the poor
religion
education level
the inherent gulf between the rich and the poor
In general, the government's actions are __________ with citizen's preferences.

consistent
inconsistent
unconcerned
None of the above
consistent
The term used to denote the beliefs that people have about political issues, events, institutions, and personalities is

public opinion.
political socialization.
democracy.
political culture.
public opinion.
College graduates are

brainwashed by their liberal professors.
more likely to participate in politics.
less likely to support women's rights.
All of the above
more likely to participate in politics.
Which of the following is not one of the four most important agents of socialization?

Partisanship
Family
Membership in social groups
Prevailing political conditions
Partisanship
In many respects, schooling in the United States

helps determine a person's success in life.
is a great equalizer.
teaches children a common set of civic values.
All of the above
All of the above
The ability of the government to shape public opinion is

unlimited.
limited by other sources of information.
nonexistent.
None of the above
limited by other sources of information.
Which of the following agents of socialization provides most people with their initial orientation to politics?

Family
Peers
Church
Education
Family
"The South's move from the Democratic to the Republican camp took place because of white southern opposition to the Democratic Party's racial policies." According to the authors, this statement illustrates

how political conditions affect political beliefs.
how political socialization does not always work.
the transitory nature of political culture.
why the Democrats have not won a southern state in a presidential election since 1964.
how political conditions affect political beliefs.
Which of the following variables is likely to affect public opinion?

Income
Race
Education
Gender
All of the above
All of the above
I support the social and political status quo, and I am suspicious of government regulation of business. However, I favor government involvement in social issues and believe the government should promote prayer in public school. I am most likely

a liberal.
a conservative.
a libertarian.
None of the above
a conservative.
People are more likely to change their opinions when they

are presented with a well-reasoned argument.
are well-informed on the issue at hand.
don't have strong feelings about the issue at hand.
are regular voters.
don't have strong feelings about the issue at hand.
Which of the following is not a core U.S. value?

Individual liberty
Democracy
Big government
Equality of opportunity
Big government
The practice of push polling involves

telemarketers pretending to be pollsters to push their products.
calling people during dinnertime to ensure that as many people as possible will be home.
asking loaded questions to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
pushing politicians to adopt policy proposals they would not otherwise adopt.
asking loaded questions to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
Which kind of polling error arises when a sample of public opinion overrepresents or underrepresents some opinions?

Push polling
Margin of error
Errata
Selection bias
Selection bias
The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not is known as

the existence of saliency.
the illusion of saliency.
the bandwagon effect.
push polling.
the illusion of saliency.
How did the framers of the Constitution grapple with the effect public opinion might have on governmental policy?

By creating a system that gave wealth and power to the elite
By creating a system that did not automatically let popular opinion translate into public policies
By creating a system of expressed powers
By creating a system that gave the people direct power to make public policies
By creating a system that did not automatically let popular opinion translate into public policies
I support political and social change, government intervention in the economy, and the expansion of federal social services. However, I mistrust government involvement in personal issues, such as telling my children when or how to pray. I am most likely

a liberal.
a conservative.
a libertarian.
None of the above
a liberal.
People's underlying beliefs and ideologies

force them to think carefully about each opinion that they hold.
color their perceptions so that they often make automatic judgments.
prevent liberals and conservatives from sharing similar core values.
are established when they are young and rarely change as they grow older.
color their perceptions so that they often make automatic judgments.
The idea of a "culture war" refers to which of the following?

The censoring of controversial South Park episodes by Comedy Central
Aggressive attempts by the National Endowment for the Arts to increase its annual budget
A perceived, deep divide in American culture, caused by differences in religious, moral, and political values
Generational differences among voters
A perceived, deep divide in American culture, caused by differences in religious, moral, and political values