66 terms

Agents of Erosion~Vocabulary

Vocabulary on the study guide for the upcoming Agents of Erosion test in Earth Science! Good luck! (If there are any mistakes or anything, just write so in the discussion board or something)
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Terms in this set (...)

erosion
process that moves surface materials from one place to another
deposition
eroded sediment is set down in new locations
mass movement
type of erosion that happens as gravity moves materials down slope
landslides
occurs when mass movement happens quickly
talus slope
a pile of debris at the bottom of an incline (left by all mass movement)
deflation
wind blowing loose sediments and removing small particles like silt and sand
loess
yellowish-brown rock flour sediments, finely ground by glaciers and deposited by wind
dune
a mound of sediments drifted by the wind
wind break
a way to prevent erosion by wind (something that provides shelter from wind- like a line of trees or something)
ice shelves
glaciers extending out for miles over water
icebergs
when glaciers reach water and break off
roche moutonnees
rounded knobs formed when a glacier moves over bedrock and smooths and plucks the rock
hanging valley
a small valley high above the floor of the main valley; formed when a small glacier flows on top of a larger one
erratics
large boulders that don't match the bedrock
till
large amounts of unsorted debris deposited by glaciers
stratified drift
sorted sediments
lateral moraine
moraines on the side of a glacier
end moraine
moraines formed at the end of a glacier (also known as recessional moraines)
terminal moraine
moraine left at the farthest point of a glacier's advance
drumlins
canoe shaped hill formed when an advancing glacier runs over old end moraine and stretches it out
outwash plain
area where sediments are sorted; formed when melt water flows out in front of a glacier
kettle lake
when a large block falls off font of glacier, buried in a hole, ice melts; water table rises and hole fills up with water
striations
long, parallel scratches formed when a glacier moves along and has small rocks embedded in the bottom
grooves
deep trenches in bedrock, dug by large boulders embedded in the moving glacier
continental ice sheets
large glaciers that cover hundreds of square miles (also called ice sheets)
valley glaciers
small glaciers found in mountainous areas (also known as alpine glaciers)
esker
a winding ridge of sediment deposited by river of melt water that runs below the glacier
gradient
slope, how steep or gentle
oxbow lake
a small arc-shaped lake formed when a meander is sealed off by deposition
meander
a bend in a river
mouth
end of the river (where it meets the ocean or a lake, etc)
source
where the stream begins (usually a spring)
bed
ground at the bottom of a river
banks
ground on the sides of the river
delta
a fan-shaped area of sediment built up at the mouth of a river
back swamps
where yazoo streams are located. Usually between the mouth of the river and a large meanders, in floodplains
plunge pool
pool at the foot of a waterfall due to the erosion of the plunging water hitting the bottom
stream load
what the river carries along with it
rejuvenate
brought back to life (young again)
flood plain
flat land of the river valley close to the river banks, fertile land
cut bank
a concave bank of a winding stream that is usually a steep or even overhanging cliff because of the movement of water at its base
point bar
a low, curved ridge of sand and sediment along the inner bank of a meander
tributary
smaller streams that feed into a river
sand bar
a ridge of sand formed in a river through deposition
velocity
speed and direction (determined by the gradient)
terrace
steps of land created when rivers erode down through old flood plains
sea cliff
significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure
terrace
formed when cliffs are undercut
sea cave
if a hole is eroded into the headland
sea arch
if a sea cave is eroded all the way through
sea stack
an isolated column of rock left if a sea arch collapses
headland
resistant rock that sticks out of the shore
bays
body of water partially enclosed by land
longshore current
current that moves water parallel to the shore
swash
water washing up the beach (at an angle)
backwash
water flowing back down the beach
sandbar
sand deposited in an underwater ridge, parallel to the shore
spit
a peninsula of sand at the edge of a headland formed by long-shore currents
tombolo
if a spit connects an offshore island to the mainland
sea wall
a wall or embankment erected to prevent the sea from encroaching on or eroding an area of land
riprap
stone used to form a foundation for a breakwater
breakwater
a barrier built out into the sea to protect a coast or harbor from the force of waves
jetty
a barrier built out into the sea to protect a coast or harbor from the force of waves
fetch
distance a wave travels across open water
emergent coastlines
straight coastline, few offshore islands, has cliffs (ex. West Coast)
submergent coastlines
irregular, offshore islands, has bays (ex. East Coast)