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manifest destiny

the belief that the U.S. was meant to expand to the Pacific Ocean

mountain men

American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains

conestoga wagon

sturdy vehicle topped with white canvas and used by pioneers to move west


a Spanish mission and site of a famous battle

erie canal

a 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825

trail of tears

forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of Cherokees died

mormon migration


gold rush

a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.

luisiana purchase

bought land extending westward from mississippi river to roughly rocky mountains for 15 million dollars

lewis and clark

Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase

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