External pressure from the Western powers, population growth/ food shortages, incompetence, corruption, peasant unrest
A highly addictive drug that the British started selling to Chinese citizens to gain profit after the Chinese refused to end their unfair trading.
A christian convert and leader of the Tai Ping rebellion who viewed himself as a younger brother of Jesus Christ.
Tai Ping Rebellion
Economic problems in China led to a peasant revolt, led by Hong Xiuquan. The rebellion called for social reforms, and seized Nanjing. The Europeans came to aid of China and brought the rebellion to an end. One of the most destructive civil wars in history.
Chinese city captured by the Tai Ping rebels.
A policy called for by social reformers that stated that the Chinese should adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian vales and institutions.
Spheres of Influence
areas created by European states where the imperial powers had exclusive trading rights.