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111 terms

motivation and work flashcards

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motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierachy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before high level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its level is low, we feel hunger
set point
the point at which individuals weight thermostat is supposedly set. when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by masters and johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males, in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones, both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
industrial organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
personnel psychology
a sub field of i/o psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
organizational psychology
a sub field of i/o psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experiences
james-lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
cannon-bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
schachter-singer's theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
maintain homeostasis
By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to
food deprivation; hunger
Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.
hypothalamus
Orexin is an appetite hormone secreted by the
ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat
Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________
hunger
The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of
anorexia nervosa
Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
premature ejaculation
Which of the following is indicative of a sexual disorder
STIs
Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies
with therapists, easy to change sexual orientation
Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?
erotic plasticity
Women more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in:
anterior commissure
A section of the ________ has been found to be larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men
self esteem
Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel
industrial-organizational psychology
Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of:
360-degree feedback
For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates:
celebrate employee productivity by providing them with recognition and rewards.
Compared to ineffective managers, those who are effective are more likely to:
instinct
After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of:
incentives
Some students work hard in school in order to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:
financial circumstances; home life
In poorer nations, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one's ________. In wealthier countries, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one's ________.
lateral hypothalamus
A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.
decreases;increases
The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.
bulimia nervosa
In an attempt to lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
cultural ideas of beauty increasing thinness
Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:
resolution phase
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
testosterone;lowered
The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.
a father's absence
In studies that followed hundreds of New Zealand and U.S. girls from age 5 to 18, ________ was linked to sexual activity before age 16.
more committed relationships with lesbians rather than gay men
Research on sexual orientation indicates that:
sexual orientation
The fraternal birth order effect refers to a factor associated with:
belongingness
When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.
organizational psychology
Assessing the impact of different management styles on the motivation and productivity of employees best illustrates the professional concerns of:
social leadership
Managers who build teamwork and effectively mediate employee conflicts are said to excel in:
Masters and Johnson
Found the sexual response cycle, the four stages of sexual responding-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
simon levay
wrote Sexual Brain and Queer Science, completed research on the DNA and finding a gay gene, he found the gene INAH3 was more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men
ostracism
excluded or shunned by others-people suffer from stress and depression
orexin
a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, leptin, ghrelin, or PYY)
insulin
a hormone that is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle
ghrelin
a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, leptin, orexin, or PYY)
lateral hypothalamus
Concerned with hunger. Damage to this area can cause reduced food intake. Stimulating this causes a desire to eat.
ventromedial hypothalamus
Concerned with hunger. Damage to this area can cause over-eating. Stimulating this causes a desire to stop eating.
interviewer illusion
a feeling of overconfidence in one's intuitive ability to predict employee success
leptin
a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, ghrelin, orexin, or PYY)
360 degree feedback
also known as multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment, it is feedback that comes from all around an employee feedback is provided by subordinates, peers, and supervisors. It also includes a self-assessment and, in some cases, feedback from external sources such as customers and suppliers or other interested stakeholders
halo error
occurs when one's overall evaluation of an employee, or of a trait such as friendliness, biases rating of their specific work-related behaviors such as their liability
leniency or severity error
reflects evaluators tendencies to be either to easy or too harsh on everyone
recency errors
occur when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior
alfred kinsey
regarded by some as the father of the scientific study of human sexuality. Published a series of reports which described common sexual behaviors in the US, his sampling was later put into question
james-lange theory
we feel emotion after we notice our physiological responses
cannon-bard theory
we feel emotion at the same time that our bodies respond
sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes us for action by directing adrenals to release stress hormones, which in turn increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, and by triggering other defensive physical reactions
parasympathetic nervous system
calms us after a crisis has passed, though arousal diminishes gradually
arousal theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)
Theory that states that human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.
spillover effect
occurs when our arousal from one even influences our response to other events
robert zajonc
motivation; believes that we invent explanations to label feelings
joseph ledoux
psychologist who believed that some of our emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking and cognition is not always necessary for emotion
richard lazarus
agrees that cognition is essential: Many important emotions arise from our interpretations or interferences.
paul ekman
1934-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: found that facial expressions are universal
carol izard
research found the 10 basic emotions of joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt
facial feedback
expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states, and the muscles signal the body to response as though
opponent process theory of emotion
following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion; on repeated occasions, the opposing emotion becomes stronger
cognitive appraisal
the interpretation of an event that helps determine its stress impact
feel-good, do good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
arousal
a state of heightened physiological activity
anterior cingulated cortex
part of cortex that subserves primarily executive functions related to the emotional control of visceral, skeletal, and endocrine outflow.
catharsis
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges
James-lange theory
Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?
walter cannon
Who suggested that very similar physiological reactions are associated with a variety of different emotions?
decreases salivation, increases blood pressure
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
best;moderate
Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. Her performance is likely to be ________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is ________.
respiration
A lie detector is used to monitor a person's:
two-factory theory
If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the:
cognitive appraisals
Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test or to our own lack of academic ability. This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by:
amygdala
The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the:
eyes;mouth
By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.
evolutionary perspective
It has been suggested that raising the eyebrows is universally associated with the expression of surprise because this facial expression effectively widens the eyes to enhance the perception of unexpected circumstances. This suggestion best illustrates the:
james-lange theory
If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of the:
catharsis hypothesis
Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates the:
feel-good, do good phenomenon
After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:
overestimate;overestimate
People ________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they ________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.
relative deprivation principle
Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the: