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152 terms

Unit 3: Imperialism/World War I/Russian Revolution

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New imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories
scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts
congress of berlin
The meeting which established the principle that European occupation of African territory had to be based on effective occupation that was recognized by other states and that no single nation could control Africa
Leopold II
King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River; ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain
David Livingstone
most important missionary and explorer of Africa in Victorian period, Scottish, went back and forth from Africa over 30 years, abolitionist, 1871 disappeared but was living among Africans, found by Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Stanley
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State
jingoism
extreme patriotism; favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
geopolitics
an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products
Indochina
French colony made up of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States
Menelik II
Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia;defeated the Italians and maintained their independence
Francesco Crispi
prime minister of Italy, tries to broker some agreements between the North, South, and the Church, takes away the right to vote from many people, he was heavy handed and authoritarian
Battle of Adowa
led by Menelik II, successful resistance in Ethiopia. The result was the Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their nation's independence
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal
Orange Free State and Transvaal
The Trek Boers set up these two republics away from British rule that would have the same segregated way of life they are used to
Boer War
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
Jameson Raid
invasion of the Afrikaner territory of Transvaal, started by Rhodes, failed
apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Opium War
a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain
extraterritoriality
right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Sino-Japanese War
war fought between China and Japan over Korea from 1894 to 1895
Russo-Japanese War
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War (negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt); gave Japan South Manchuria and Korea
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Black Man's Burden
a reply to Kipling's poem that was written by African-American clergyman and editor H. T. Johnson and published in April 1899
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
Empress of India
the title adopted by Queen Victoria in 1877 to reflect the British rule of India
Paul Leroy-Beaulieu
wrote documents that supported the British imperialism saying that by investing in colonies they would get more money, resources, land, and technology
Joseph Chamberlain
British colonial secretary from 1895 to 1903; stated that the living standards of the working class could only be maintained by the creation of self-sustaining and self-protecting empires
Fashoda Affair
The conflict between Britain and France for control of Egypt area in Africa in the late 1890's. Never reached full-on war, but close. France lost in the end because of internal conflict over the Dreyfus Affair
orientalism
Term introduced to postcolonist theory by Edward Said and refers to the creation of non-European stereotypes that suggest "Orientals" or Asians are indolent, thoughtless, sexually immoral, unreliable and demented
social darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (social darwinism)
informal imperialism
power is shared between local rulers, Stronger state allows weaker state to remain its independence but lessens its power; economic and military domination but not political functions
formal imperialism
direct military control over a territory; "protectorate" status
dual mandate
the idea that colonial powers ruled their colonies and used local rulers to carry out policies
John Atkinson Hobson
English economist and critic of imperialism-linked capitalism and imperialism
Pax Britannica
"British Peace", a century long period beginning with Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in 1815 and ending with WWI in 1914 during which Britain's economic and diplomatic influence contribute to economic openness and relative peace
Friedrich Fabri
"father of German colonial movement;" wrote "Does Germany need colonies?"
Allies
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Von Schlieffen Plan
plan by Germany to end war quickly, attack France through Belgium, if successful only one front with Russia
Black Hand
the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand
Princip
A black hand gang member, was the person who killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Sarajevo
largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary conquered it, along with Bosnia and Herzegovina; where Franz Ferdinand was assassinated
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire; Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI
tank
an enclosed armored military vehicle invented by British and first used during Battle of the Somme
machine gun
a rapidly firing automatic gun (often mounted)
airplane
used for the first time in war to do bombs
poisonous gas
usually mustard and chlorine varieties; outlawed in war after WWI
Western front
the name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI, A line of trenches and fortifications in World War; fighting between Germany and France & Britain
Eastern front
the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
Gallipoli
A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire to open connection through Turkey to Russia
total war
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat with channeling of resources
Woodrow Wilson
represents US at peace conference; has 14 points plan to bring lasting peace
Georges Clemenceau
French representative at the Paris Peace Conference; pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister and representative at peace conference;goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I
Versailles Treaty
The compromise after WWI, settled land and freedom disputes; Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things; The US Senate rejected it.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917; Russia lost Balkan states
Mensheviks
the majority party that opposed the Bolsheviks; tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WWI
Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution, Communism, and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin; Lenin's right hand man
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Soviets
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers
April Theses
document drafted by Lenin rejecting the Provisional Government of Russia established by the Duma
Bloody Sunday
1905; peaceful march by Russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds
March Revolution
overthrew czar Nicholas and Romanov dynasty and set up the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky
November Revolution
Nov. 1917 when Lenin and Bolshevik followers overthrew provisional government and took over the Russian government
Kerensky
Russian revolutionary who was head of state after Nicholas II abdicated but was overthrown by the Bolsheviks (1881-1970)
War Communism
Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
NEP
new economic policy, which brought about some capitalist reforms to help improve the Russian economy (letting some small businesses be privately owned), and as a way to retreat from war communism; was supposed to be temporary
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928; set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state
Comintern
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin; wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
purges
was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin
Law on abortion
Bolshevik government issued a Decree on Women's Healthcare, which provided for free and on demand abortions for the first time in the world
collectivization
combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government
polarization
a sharp division, as of a population or group, into opposing factions-happened in Europe with countries aligning themselves with others
Belgium
Took over Congo
Great Britain
Took over Africa in a straight line from Egypt to South Africa + Nigeria, and the Gold Coast and India, Burma, Australia, and Hong Kong
France
Took over Madagascar, West Africa, and Equatorial Africa, and Indochina
Germany
Took over Toga, Cameroon, and East Africa (Tanganyika) and Southwest Africa (Namibia)
Italy
Took over Libya, Eritrea, and Somaliland
Portugal
Took over Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea
Spain
Took over Rio de Oro and the top of Morocco
United States
Took over Hawaii, Samoa, Panama Canal and got the Caribbean and Philippines from a war
Russia
Took over the Maritime Provinces
eugenics
study of genetics to improve inherited characteristics of a race
Treaty of Shimenoseki
Treaty after Sino-Japanese War that gave Japan Taiwan and strong influence in Korea
home
Bismarck says Germany should be strong at
Berlin Conference 1878
conference between Britain, Russia, Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Austro-Hungarian Empire due to fear of Russian influence, espeically in the balkans. This diminished Ottoman Holdings and failed to bring peace to the Balkans; France conceded claims to Cyprus, GB to Tunisia, and Bismarck gets France to settle in area near Tunisia
John Rowlands
Henry Stanley's original name
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI
Triple Alliance
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI
French Plan XVII
called for concentration of troops in a single area with the intention of decisively defeating the enemy. Used Alsace and Lorraine as the target for their concentrated power (left Paris exposed) but didn't know about the Schlieffen Plan
neutral
Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia were all
flame throwers
weapon used by Germans against British tanks
Lusitania
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Zimmerman Telegram
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S
Ludendorff offensive
German sent troops west, last ditch effort to close Western Front before US involvement, all in, almost successful (20 miles from Paris)
Vittorio Orlando
Italy's representative in Council of Four
Reinsurance Treaty
agreement between Germany and Russia that stipulated that each power would maintain neutrality should the other find itself at war; Wilhelm fired Bismarck, removed treaty, Russia allied with France
Anglo-French Entente (Dual Entente)
In 1904, Britain and France signed this document that that implied if one was attacked, the other would come to its aid because of common enemy of Germany
Japan
Pacific Country that was similar to and sympathetic to Great Britain
propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Battle of Jutland
Largest naval battle of WWI. (May-June) Brits vs. Germans in North Seas; No clear winner
Central, Allied
Italy changes alliance from the __________ Powers to the _________ Powers
tutelage
instruction, protection, or guardianship
reporation
Paying back; making amends; compensation
demilitarized, secret, chemical, League of Nations
The Treaty of Versailles: __________ Germany, no _______ treaties or ________ warfare, created _____________
Alsace and Lorraine
What did France get from the Treaty of Versailles?
Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland
Three big new independent countries as a result of Treaty of Versailles
aborogation
doing away with
Baltic states
The Treaty of Versailles gives Russia back the
Article 231
War Guilt Clause in Treaty of Versailles
John Mayard Keynes
Wrote the Economic Consequences of the Peace (about the Treaty of Versailles)
conditions
From WWI, we learn that we shouldn't end a war with
Witte
in Russia; this minister of finance helped push construction of railroads, encouraged protective tariffs, persuaded Nicholas II that foreign capital was essential, and helped the rapid growth of the modern steel and coal industry
majority
Bolsheviks means the
minority
Mensheviks means the
October Manifesto
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma
Cadettes
political party in Russia that believed in working through a representative body
Duma
brings Great Britain into relationship with Russia
Russia
Russia or Britain: gets Northern Persia (with Tehran)
Britain
Russia or Britain: gets Southern Persia (and Afghanistan)
Kornilov Affair
in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated
Gregorian
Lenin changed Russia to this calendar
religion
outlawed by Lenin in Russia
Constituent Assembly
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenin's orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
What does the USSR stand for?
Treaty of Rapallo
A secret treaty signed in 1922 between Germany and the USSR. This was a treaty of mutual assistance that allowed the Germans to develop weapons in violation of the Versailles Treaty
Stressemann
German statesman who orchestrated German's road to recovery
reinsurance
In 1892 Germany didn't renew its __________ treaty
Kremlin
the name of the building that housed the Soviet government offices
Italia Irredenta
Italy's desire to obtain lands right above northern Italy
Trotsky
most feared by other senior members of Lenin's government because of his Red Army; refused to compete for leadership; exiled to Turkey and then Mexico and then killed
Stalin
After Lenin's death, played all of the other leaders against each other to gain power
KOLKHOV
system where the government combines land
SOLKHOV
farming completely taken over by government and send people to work it
kulaks
wealthy peasants who were infuriated by collectivization
GOSPLAN
the State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans
Cheka
Secret police of Russia under Lenin
NKUD
Secret police of Russia under Stalin