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30 terms

mrdgeography early civilizations vocabulary

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dynasty
a ruling family
pharaohs
Egyptian kings
vizier
chief minister in ancient Egypt
hieroglyphics
a form of picture writing developed by the ancient Egyptians
ideograms
pictures that symbolize an idea or action
hierarchy
a system of ranks
ziggurat
a pyramid like temple built by Sumerians
cuneiform
a type of writing developed by the Sumerians
alphabet
a type of writing in which letters represent spoken sounds
Code of Hammurabi
a set of laws developed around 1800 bce in Babylon
Ten Commandments
a set of laws that Jews believe God gave them through Moses
Torah
first five books of the Old Testament
Zoroastrianism
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster
Phoenicians
people who lived on the coast of the Mediterranean in present day Lebanon and Syria who became sea traders
monotheistic
belief in one god
polytheistic
belief in many gods
Aryan
group of Indo-Europeans who migrated into South Asia around 1500 bce
brahman
spiritual power that resides in all things
Vedas
collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings from the Aryans
karma
the actions of a person's life that affect his or her fate in the next life
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in another bodily form
moksha
union of brahman
atman
the essential self of every person that seeks union with brahman
dharma
religious and moral duties of an individual
ahmisa
both the avoidance of violence toward other life-forms and an active sense of compassion toward them.
nirvana
union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
filial piety
respect for parents
caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
analects
a collection of the sayings of Confucius
Tao
the way