40 terms

Chapter 4: Life In the Colonies

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Indentured servants
Signed a contract to work for 4-10 years in the colonies for anyone who would pay for his/her ocean passage to the Americas. Could be punished/whipped/ have time added to serve if do not obey.
Slaves
Estimated that 10 million enslaved Africans transported to Americas between 1500-1800's. English colonies FROM NEW ENGLAND so actively shipped enslaved Africans across the Atlantic.
Middle passage
Voyage from Africa to Americas
Oladauh Equiano
Slave who survives the middle passage and writes account of his journey.
Triangular Trade
3-way trade route between the colonies, the islands of the Caribbean, and Africa.
Racism
A belief that one race is superior or inferior to another race.
Slave codes
Strict laws that restrict the rights and activities of slaves.
Mary Musgrove Matthews
Helped and assisted Oladauh Equiano
The Great Awakening
1730's-1740's religious revival in the colonies. It leads to the rise of churches. Leads to more religious tolerance in the colonies. Reinforces democratic idea that if people can choose how to worship God, can also decide how to govern themselves.
The Enlightenment
Intellectual movement that began in Europe. Human reason, natural laws to govern politics, society and economics.
Spread of Education/Public School
Supported by taxes. Puritan schools not supported by taxes, towns paid a fine rather than set up schools. Compulsory schools not until 1800.
John Locke
1690 publishes two treaties on government. He challenges the idea of divine right- the belief that monarchs get their authority directly from God. He also believes that natural rights come from God. Believes that because a government exists to protect the rights of the people, if a monarch violates those rights, the people have the right to overthrow the monarch.
Montesquieu
Powers of government should be clearly defined and limited. Argued that separation of powers protects the rights of the people. Excuse it keeps any individual or group from gaining too much power. Proposes 3 branches of government.
Legislature
Makes laws
Executive
Enforces laws
Judicial
Makes judgement based on the laws.
Separation of powers
Division of power of government in separate branches.
Natural rights
Rights that belong to everyone being from birth.
Divine rights
States that any rights people have come from the monarch.
Alexander Hamilton
Friend of Ben Franklin and William Penn. He is a Quaker from Philadelphia.
New York Gazette
The official royal paper. Bradford's paper says what the royal governor, William Cosby, wants it to say.
New York Weekly Journal
Full of "spicy" articles. Says Cosby took bribes (he did)' took away people's land (he did), and fixed elections (he did).
Libel
It was a crime to say anything bad bad against the king.
Mercantilism
Colonies exist to make the home country wealth and powerful.
Navigation Acts
Series of laws designed to control colonial trade. 1651 parliament.
Regulating trade
Colonies supply England with food and raw materials- very important to England. At first, this is beneficial to the colonies: sure market for their goods. Booming shipbuilding industry in New England. As time goes on, however, colonies see Navigation Acts as limiting their freedom.
War of Jenkins' Ear
Colonial troops officially called Americans, rather than "Colonials of Provincials."
Colonial society- duties of men, women and children
Men control families' income and property. Men were the authority figure. They represent family in public life as a voter, possibly office holder.
Women marry a man chosen by parents. Any property or money becomes husbands. She cares for children, cooking, cleaning, gardening, and tending to animals. No role in public life. No voting or holding office.
Children are required to work by age 7. Household or farm chores, might become a servant if the family is poor. Boys are with their feathers and girls are with their mothers.
Gentry
Upper class of colonial society. Wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, Royal officials, successful lawyers, prosperous artisans, such as gold smiths. Many official (government) jobs paid no salary, so the gentry could afford to hold office. Saw this as their duty and their right- most people agreed.
Middling sort
Middle class. Made up of small planters, independent farmers, and artisans. Middle class men could vote and hold office. Mostly white. Gave the poor something to hope for.
Rights of Englishmen
There were traditional rights of the subjects of the monarch of England. Some colonists objected to British rule in the colonies. Colonies argued that their traditional rights as "Englishmen" were being violated.
Magna Carta
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom. Limits the power of the King.
Legislative/Parliament
Group of people who have the power to make laws. Parliament's greatest power was the right to approve taxes. No monarch can raise taxes without Parliament's approval.
William and Mary/Glorious Revolution
Their reign, known as "The Glorious Revolution." 1689 they sign the English Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights
No monarch could levy taxes or raise an army without consent of parliament.
Habeus Corpus
A legal principle that requires authorities to show reasons why a person should be held in custody and to provide a speedy trial.
A person cannot be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime.
Rights in the colonies vs. England
By 1760, every British colony in the North America had a legislature of some kind. But these legislatures clashed pat times with the colonial (Royal) governors appointed by the king.
Freedom of the Press
The right of journalists to publish the truth without restriction or penalty.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty. (He was charged with Libel.)

A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Alexander Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.
William Cosby
The Royal Governor of New York. He took bribes, took other people's land, and he fixed elections.