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27 terms

Latin American Music

STUDY
PLAY
Aztecs
The mexicas
Language: Nahuatl
Capital: Tenochtitlán
Political power (1428-1521)
Triple Alliance: Tenochtitlán, Texcoco, Tlaxcala
Teponaztli
Idiophone
a hollowed log slit-drum, with H-shaped incision.
Mariachi Ensemble
Vihuela: round-backed small guitar with 5 strings
Guitarrón: looks like a big vihuela, 6 strings.
Six-string guitar
3-6 violins
Two trumpets


Mestizo music

European elements
String instruments.
Spanish poetic forms
Triple meter.
Polished singing style

Native elements
Shape and sound of instruments.
Mánicos (strumming)
Sesquiáltera: alternation of duple and triple meters
Norteño Ensemble
Bajo sexto (12 strings)
Button Accordion
Tololoche (double bass)
Replaced by electric bass
Redova (homemade drum)
replaced by drum set and cowbell
Corrido
Memorialized events
Legends and ballads about
Heroes
love stories
Experiences of common people

Musical Characteristics
Duple or triple meter
Strophic
Not for dancing
Can be played by mariachi, norteña, banda, conjunto, guitar
Chamba
gigs by the hour for birthdays,weddings...
Plaza Garibaldi
In Mexico City. Mariachi Coculense performed regularly here.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire
Huhuetl
Membranophone:
single-headed vertical drum.
Jarocho ensemble
String Ensemble

Improvisation (music & text)
Alternation between singers

Conjunto jarocho:
arana jarocha:
8 strings in 5 courses
Requinto jarocho:
4 strings plucked by a pick
Harp: 32-36 strings
La bamba
Ritchie Valens La bamba
Banda Music
Origin in mid-19th century, Sinaloa (N.W. Mexico)
Mazatlán: a garrison town in 1844. Tambora: local name for popular bands playing in open-air concerts
Considered low brow music

Banda Ensemble

Standardized after Mexican Revolution (9-12 musicians)
clarinets
trumpets
trombones
charchetas (sax horns)
Bajo de pecho (upright-bell tuba)
Tarola (snare drum)
Tambora (double-headed bass
drum + cymbals on top)
Conjunto
Working-class music in Texas
Developed by folk musicians
Oral tradition

Conjunto
More Virtuosic accordion
More for dancing, having fun
Armonía
IN mariachi, the instrumental section comprised of the guitarrón, six-stringed guitar, and vihuela. Provides the chordal rhythmic framework for the music the mariachi plas.
Canción ranchera
sentimental song in duple or triple meter

slow or fast tempo

simple accompaniment

about love, rural life
Nahuatl
Language spoken by the Aztecs
Quetzalcoatl
Plummed Serpent
God of knowledge, creation, priesthood
Huasteco Ensemble
aka HUAPANGO
Trio ensemble:
Violin
Jarana (5-stringed guitar)
Huapanguera (guitarra quinta with 8 strings (five single and double courses)
Pedro Infante link
Quebradita
Little Break
Incorporated fast rhythms
Elaborate vaquero (cowboy) outfits
Energetic choreographies
Dance steps imitate horse movements: trotting, horsetail, lasso, etc.
Combines country-western, cumbia, flamenco, Brazilian lambada
Deer Dance
Danza del Venado
Good associated with the deer, and evil with the jaguar
Mánicos
fast strumming in mariachis
Zapateado
Foot step of the Mexican Son
Danced to Sesuialteras
Mexican Sones
Son jalisciense
Son huasteco
Son jarocho
Son istmeño
son oaxaqueño
Son guerrerense
Son michoacano
Chilena
Son Jaliciense (Jalisco)
Sesquiáltera: mixture of duple and triple meters (3/4 + 6/8)
Son Jarocho (Veracruz)
Improvisation (music & text)
Alternation between singers
Conjunto jarocho:
arana jarocha:
8 strings in 5 courses
Requinto jarocho:
4 strings plucked by a pick
Harp: 32-36 strings
SON HUASTECO
aka HUAPANGO
Trio ensemble:
Violin
Jarana (5-stringed guitar)
Huapanguera (guitarra quinta with 8 strings (five single and double courses)
Pedro Infante link
SON OAXAQUEÑO
Marimba ensemble:
Marimba: played by 2 or more players.
Percussion instruments
SON ISTMEÑO
Wind-and-percussion bandas
No string instruments, no voice