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George Washington


Judiciary Act 1789

(GW) Created the federal court system, allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges

Tariff 1789

(GW) Hamilton, aka 10 percent tariff, protection of domestic manufacture by tariffs

Excise Tax

(GW) a tax on certain items such as alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline

Whiskey Rebellion

(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

First Bank of the US

(GW) 1791-1811, by Hamilton, came about strict vs loose construction

George Washington's Party

VP - John Adams, SS - Thomas Jefferson, ST - Alex Hamilton

Political Party of (GW)

Federalists and Democratic Republicans (from bank)

Domestic and Foreign Debts

(GW), Hamilton, funding at a par

Funding at par

(GW)This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton's establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.

Assumption of State Debts

(GW) Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another

Neutrality Proclamation

(GW) , the United States would not support either side in the war and Americans could not aid either Britain or France

Genet Affair

(GW), refused to give aid Washington objected to this French ministers plan to hire American Privateers to fight on the high seas for France and against England.

Jay Treaty

(GW) 1795, Chief Justice John Jay was sent to Britain to stop the seizing of American's ships but Britain refused which lead to the closing of the western posts for the British

Pinckney Treaty*

(GW) 1795 , AKA San Lorenzo Treaty, Thomas Pinckey, Spain agreed to let Americans ship goods down the Missippippi River and store them in New Orleans

(GW) Farewell Address

maintain national unity, obey principles and authority, create permanent allience but not embroil in European affairs

John Adams!

1797-1801, Federalist, issue = jay treaty, next vote = VP

John Adams's Party

VP - Thomas Jefferson SS - Timothy Pickering, John Marshall

XYZ Affair

(JA) , incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues

Treaty of Alliance 1778

(JA) ended

Naturalization Act

1798, (JA) Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years

Alien Act

1798 (JA), gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US

Sedition Act

1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

Midnight Judges

(JA), 1801, , The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

(JA) 1798 , These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts

Thomas Jefferson

1801-1809, Republican, split Federalist Party (Jay Treaty and Impressment hurt), against Aaron Burr, issue = Alien and Sedition Act and relation with France and England

Marbury v. Madison

1803 (TJ) , The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789

Louisiana Purchase

1803 (TJ) , Robert Livingston, James Monroe, territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

Lewis and Clark Expedition

1804 (TJ) , an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States

Embargo Act

1807 (TJ) , The U.S. tried to hurt Britain and France by cutting off the supplies they needed from America because it banned all the U.S.'s foreign trade.

Twelfth Amendment

1804 (TJ) , Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President

Non Intercourse Act

1809 (TJ), 1809 law that allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France.


(TJ) old democratic republicans who believed was of 1812 violated democratic prinapals

Old Republicans

(TJ) thought he deserted Republican principles

James Madison

1809-1817, Republican, federalist party comes again, against Pinckey

James Madison's Party*

VP - George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry, SS - James Monroe

Macon Act

(JM), 1810, The Macon Bill stated that if either Britain or France agreed to observe the neutrality of the United States, the US would resume trading with that country and continue the embargo on the other. The French soon agreed to American demands.

War Hawks

(JM), Henry Clay and Calhoun, one of the members of congress from the south and the west who called for war with Britian prior to the war of 1812

War of 1812

(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act

Treaty of Ghent

1814 (JM) , treaty that ended the war of 1812

Battle of New Orleans

(JM), Jackson defends city against British frontal attack, becomes national hero

Battles during War of 1812*

Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry), Battle of Tippecanoe (Harrison and Tecumseh), Fort McHenry (Francis Scott Key), Battle of New Orlean (Jackson)

Hartford Convention

(JM) was an event in 1814-1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed.

First Protective Tariff

1816 (JM) In 1816, Congress passed the nation's first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factories, because the British were dumping cloth in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of 1812.

James Monroe

1817-1825, Republican, John Marshall bigtime

James Monroe's Party

VP - Daniel Tompkins, SS - John Quincy Adams

McCulloch v. Maryland

(JMon) McCulloch, Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law

Dartmouth College Case

1819 (JMon), contract, Daniel Webster, Jurisdictional dispute between the college's president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)

Gibbons v. Ogden

(JMon) interstate commerce, In this Marshall Court case, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state monopoly and reaffirmed Congress' power to oversee commerce between states. Of all the cases that have interpreted the scope of congressional power under the commerce clause, none has been more important than this "steamboat case." The case established a basic precedent because it paved the way for later federal regulation of transportation, communication, buying and selling, and manufacturing. Today, little economic activity remains outside the regulatory power of Congress.

Acquisition of Florida from Spain

(JMon) Jackson gets Spain, praised by Adams and Monroe, not by Senate or House

Missouri Compromise*

1820, (JMon) , The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Tallmadge Amendment

(JMon) , This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

Monroe Doctrine*

(JMon) 1823, , A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Sectional Tariff*

1824, (JMon)was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods., Calhoun thought South suffered

American System*

1824 (JMon), Henry Clay, response to Tariff of 1824, program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.

John Quincy Adams

1825-1829, National Republican

John Quincy Adams's Party

VP - Calhoun, SS - Henry Clay

Erie Canal

(JQA). first great east-west highway, commerce and trade

Tariff of Abomination

1828, (JQA), south did it on purpose so congress would vote against it, but no, they were wrong, , Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection.

Exposition and Protest

1828 (JQA) , John C. Calhoun wrote this in protest to the Tariff of 1828. In it, he said that a state should be able to nullify a federal law (The Tariff of 1828)

Nullification Act

(JQA), act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal

Andrew Jackson

1829-1837, (King Andrew, Old Hickory) Democrat, issue = 2nd Bank of America (Jackson and Clay), Whig Party emerged

Andrew Jackson's Party

VP - Calhoun, Buren SS - Buren, John Forsyth

Jacksonian Democracy

A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.

Nominating Convention

(AJ) , meeting at which a political party chooses a candidate, religious qualification dropped

Spoils System

(AJ) system in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends

First Labor Unions*

(AJ), in Philly, wanted 1) abolition of imprisonment for debt 2) free education 3) abolition of prison contract 4) 10 hour work day

Dorothea Dix

(AJ) , Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients

Emma Willard

(AJ) , in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere

Oberlin College

(AJ) , first college to teach women and African Americans

Mary Lyon

(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary

American Temperance Union

(AJ) , 1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drink

Lucretia Mott

(AJ) , was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 1800s but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(AJ) , 1815-1902. American social activist and early proponent of women's rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments speech delivered in Seneca, NY, in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's suffrage and women's rights movements in the U.S. Was also an early abolitionist.

William Lloyd Garrison

(AJ) , Wrote the antislavery newspaper, the Liberator

Horace Mann

(AJ) , late 1830s, MA, United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

Tariff of 1832

(AJ) , The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.

Force Bill

(AJ) , Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.

Tariff of 1833*

(AJ) set up by henry clay, it was a way to prevent jackson from victory. clay aptly deserves his title as the great comprimiser. it allowed for the tariff of 1832, with a 10 percent decrease every year for 10 years, when the tariff rate would be back to where it was in 1816. it was squezed through congress.

Second Bank of the United States

(AJ) , chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.

Pet Banks

(AJ) , State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

Trail of Tears

(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Whig Party

(AJ) reaction to Jackson against nullification,

Martin Van Buren

1837-1841, Democrat, Crown Prince, WP - Webster, Anti Mason - Harrison

Martin Van Buren's Party*

VP - Richard M. Johnson SS - John Forsyth

Panic of 1837

(MVB) , When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

Independent Treasury System AKA Subtreasuries

(MVB), 1840 Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.

Gag Resolution

(MVB) 18-36-1844, Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

William Harry Harrison

1841, Whig Party, issue = avoided banking, tariff, internal improvments, slavery, loose vs strict construction, died

William Harry Harrison's Party

VP - Tyler SS - Webster

John Tyler

1841-1845, Anti-Jackson Democrat, issue = third bank

John Tyler's Party

SS - Webster

Webster Ashburton Treaty

(JT), followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition

James K. Polk*

1845-1849, Democrat, first dark horse, Manifest Destiny, issue - Texas and slavery, talked about "four forty or fight", Liberty Party - James G. Birney (abolition of slavery) Buren and Clay agree for not annexing Texas

Texas Becomes State*

(JP) 1845, before his inauguration

Oregon Boundary settled*

(JP) 54'40, between US and Britain, extension of the 49th parallel to the Pac Coast

The Mexican War

(JP) 1846-1848 , Mexico broke relations with USA after annexation of Texas. Also, dispute over boundary of Texas (Rio Grande or Nueces River?) Americans interested in New Mexico and California, as well. Polk sent Slidell to try and buy off the Mexicans... they wouldn't budge.Polk ordered Taylor to move army across Nueces River to the Rio Grande- stayed stationed for a while,finally Mexicans crossed river and attacked "MEXICANS" started the war (NOT). America got New Mexico and California, ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Key Players of Mexican War

Fremont - "Pathfinder" California, Kearny - New Mexico, Winfield Scott - Vera Cruz to Mexico City (ended war), Zachary Taylor - Buena Vista

Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty

(JP) 1848, US paid $15 million to Mexico, got New Mexico and California

Gadsen Purchase

(MF) 1853, $10 million land purchase in the desert of flat land for the Southern railroad completion in 1853. completes manifest destiny!

Wilmot Proviso

(JP), David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)

Zachary Taylor

1849-1850, Whig, Free Soil Party - Buren (free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men), Barnburners, issue = slavery

Millard Fillmore

1850-1853, Whig, issue = slavery

Compromise of 1850

(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.

Clayton Bulwar Treaty*****

(MF) 1850, Both U.S. and England wanted to build a Panama Canal. This said that if either of us built it, we'd get the builder's permission to use it and would share the profits.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

(MF) 1852, , a novel published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral (caused Civil War), Europe applauds

Zachary Taylor's Party

VP - Fillmore

Millard Fillmore's Party

SS - Webster

Franklin Pierce

1853-1857, Democrat, issue = Compromise of 1850, opponent - winfield scott

Japan Trade

(FP), Matthew C. Perry with Japan, Japan dominant power in Far East

Kansas Nebraska Bill

(FP)1854, Stephen Douglas, Act in 1854 which created two new organized territories and allowed popular sovereignty to determine the status of slavery, victory for the South

Underground Railroad

(FP) 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North

Personal Liberty Laws

(FP) , Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves

Bleeding Kansas**

(FP) , : (between Missouri and Northerners) was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.

John Brown

(FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.

Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks

(FP) , Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks

Lecompton Constitution

(FP) 1857, , proslavery (Buchanan) but antislavery (Congress) The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.

Ostend Manifesto

(FP) 1854, a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S., found out, Pierce repudiated

James Buchanan

1857-1861, Democrat, Know-Nothings Party (Fillmore), Democrats (Compromise of 1850 and Kansas Nebraska Bill)

American Party

Political organization that was created after the election of 1852 by the Know-Nothings, was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846

Dred Scott Case

(JB) , Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south

Freeport Doctrine

(JB) , 1858, Stephen Douglas's support for popular sovereignty on the slavery issue, espoused during his debates with Lincoln in Illinois Senate election

Harpers Ferry

(JB), 1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

James Buchanan's Party

VP - Breckinridge

Abraham Lincoln

1861-1865, Republican, 2 Democrats (Douglas and Breckinridge) and Constitutional Union Party (Bell)

Confederate States of America

the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861, Jefferson Davis, Montgomery, AL


(AL) , a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War, Vallandigham


(AL) , payments to encourage volunteers (North not South)


(AL) , Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)

National Banking System

(AL) , Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. (North)

Emancipation Proclamation

(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

First Bull Run*

(AL) , 1861-- First battle of the Civil War. Union soldiers were commanded by McDowell and defeated by the Confederate soldiers under Beauregard (Stonewall Jackson)

Second Bull Run

(AL) , McClellan gets his butt kick and the South defeats North, 1862


(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation


(AL), 1863 , a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)


(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle

William Sherman

(AL) , scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war


(AL) 1864, , This was the last battle of the Civil War that ended in a Union victory.It ended the war. Grant defeats Lee

Ten Percent Plan*

(AL) , 1863, when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the State could form a government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery

Homestead Act*

(AL) 1862, , passed in 1862,the law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to like on and improve the land for 5 years, companies got better land

Thirteenth Amendment

(AJohn) , abolished slavery

Fourteenth Amendment

(AJohn) , made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country

Andrew Johnson*

1865-1869, Republican

Andrew Johnson's Party

SS - W.H. Seward

Fifteenth Amendment

(AJohn) , Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote

Jim Crow Laws

(AJohn) , Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

Grandfather Clause

(AJohn) , Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867

Reconstruction Act

(AJohn) 1867 , Law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment


(AJohn) , (South) delegates who went along with the Radical Republicans

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