History chapter 5
Terms in this set (46)
People who settles on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. came from their leading city, Mycenae. Former Indo-europeans
Legendary stories that were thought to be fictional. Attack on Troy. 1200 B.C. Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia
Group of people that moved into the war torn countryside. Spoke a dialect of Greek and may have been distant relatives of the Bronze Age Greeks. Migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Greatest storyteller. Blind. Composed Epics. Considered the greatest Greek storyteller. His works were considered history to the Greeks.
Narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds. 750-700 B.C. The Iliad
Traditional stories about their gods, Developed by the Greeks.
Fundamental political unit. Made up of a city and its surrounding country side, which included numerous villages. After 750 B.C.
A place where citizens gathered to discuss city government. Part of the polis/city-state that was a fortified hilltop
Leaders that would work for the interests of the people. they set up building programs to provide jobs and housing for their supporters
Peasants that were forced to stay in the land they worked on. Conquered Messenian peasants forced by Spartans. Half of their crops were due to the Spartans yearly.
Formation of foot soldiers that stood side by side, each holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other
Wars between Greece and the Persian Empire. Began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia. A series of wars in the 5th century B.C. in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire.
State ruled by a king. Rule is hereditary. Some rulers claim divine right. Practices in Mycenae by 2000 B.C.
State ruled by nobility. Rule is hereditary. and based on family ties, social rank, and wealth. Social status and wealth support ruler's authority. Practiced in Athens prior to 594 B.C.
State ruled by a small group of citizens. Rule is based on wealth or ability. Ruling group controls military
State ruled by citizens. Rule is based on citizenship. Majority rule decides vote. Practiced in Athens by about 5000 B.C.
Art in which harmony, order, and balance were emphasized. Sums up the ideal beauty of this era, not realism.
Serious drama dealing with such themes as love, hate, war, or betrayal. Usually some type of tragic flaw contributed to the tragic hero's downfall.
Light and amusing play that may poke fun at serious subjects. Silly situations and crude humor. Often playwrights made light of politics and people of the time
War in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies. 431 B.C.-404 B.C.
Thinker who used logic and reason to explore life's important questions. Lover of wisdom. Investigates universe, human society, and mortality.
Greek thinker who explored truth and justice and developed a method of questioning and answering. Believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice. He encouraged Greeks to question themselves and their moral character. Socratic Method. "The unexamined life is not worth living."
Socrates' student who wrote The republic, a view of the ideal society. Wrote down conversations of Socrates. Founded the Academy in Athens. "Philosophy begins in wonder."
Plato's student who developed a method for testing and organizing ideas. Questioned the nature of the world, human beliefs, and knowledge. Built Lyceum. "He who studies how things originated...will achieve the clearest view of them."
King of Macedonia who conquered Greece. Hoped to avenge the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. Became king at 23 years old. Stabbed to death by a former guardsman. Alexander the Great was his son.
Alexander the Great
Phillip II's son who established a huge empire. Learned science, geography, and literature. Enjoyed Homer's description of the Trojan War. Conquered the Persian Empire. Died at age 32. Reached the Indus Valley. Entered Egypt and founded the city of Alexandria
Persian King. Vowed to crush Alexander. He tried to negotiate a peace settlement after being defeated.
Relating to the culture that blended Greek with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian Influences
Egyptian city that was the center of Hellenistic Influences.
Greek mathematician and pioneer in geometry
Greek scientists, inventor, and mathematician
Colossus of Rhodes
Huge bronze statue created on the island of Rhodes.
How did the physical geography of Greece affect the development of communities? Be sure to mention the significance of sea travel in early Greece
Greek mainland was largely a peninsula. Mountains divided Greece into sub regions. 3/4 of Greece was covered by mountains. In these sub regions, populations developed independently. Numerous harbors dotted the Coastline.
What aspects of culture did the Mycenaeans adopt from the Minoans?
The Mycenaeans adopted the Minoan writing system and artistic designs. This also made the Mycenaeans appreciate sea trade more. They also explored more distant islands after observing the Minoans.
Why were the epics of importance to the Greeks of the Dorian period?
The Greeks of this time lacked writing, so they learned about their history through the spoken word. Epic poems celebrated numerous topics of interests to the Greeks including battles, romance, heroism and other ideal qualities of men and women.
What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece? Describe what life was like in each of these city-states.
The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens. Sparta was a very isolated military state. It was not a democracy. Helots in Sparta owed labor/crops to stay on the land. This led to revolts. Little time was dedicated to the arts and writing. Instead, duty, strength, and discipline was emphasized. Boys ages 7-30 were sent to army barracks where they face tough military training and life style. Girls were offered military and could engage in contact sports. Service to Sparta before family. In Athens, they tried to avoid power struggles between the rich and the poor. Wealthy families received formal education. Boys began schooling at age 7; public-speaking emphasized for boys as preparation for future debates in the assembly. Military school for older boys prepped them to be soldiers. Athletic activities were encouraged even for women via household activities. Majority of women were not encouraged to do much outside the home. Some women became writers.
What contributions did Solon and Cleisthenes make to the development of Athenian democracy.
Solon let Athenian citizens participate in Assembly, even though he reorganized all Athenian citizens into classes according to wealth. He outlawed debt slavery; any citizen could bring charges against a wrongdoer. Cleisthenes diffused power of nobility by categorizing citizens based on location, rather than wealth. All citizens could submit laws for debate and passage to the assembly. He created the council of 500. Advised the assembly and proposed laws. Members of the council were chosen at random.
What were the consequences of the Persian Wars?
The Delian league was formed, an alliance between numerous Greek city-states. Athens became a dominant Greek city-state and moved the Delian League's headquarters to Athens. A flourishing of creativity took place in Athens, this would be considered by historians as a brief, Athenian golden age.
Who was Pericles and what were Pericles's goals for Athens?
Pericles was a wise and able statesman that led Athens during much of its golden age. He wanted to strengthen Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire, and to glorify Athens. 461-429 B.C. is often called the Age of Pericles.
Identify Herodotus and Thucydides
Thucydides was the greatest historian of the classical age. He believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time. Herodotus was a Greek historian who strived to report accurate observations of events taking place. His book on the Persian Wars is considered the 1st work of art.
What were the battle strategies of Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian War? How does the concept of hubris from Greek tragedy apply to the Peloponnesian war?
Athens' strategy was to avoid land battles with the Spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike Sparta and its allies from the Sea. The Spartans marched into Athenian territory, burning Athenian food supply. Hubris means excessive pride. When Athens went into a golden age, they were full with hubris and lead to many nemesis. When Pericles died, Athens died with him.
Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia?
Greece was so easily conquered by Macedonia because the Greek city-states could not agree on any single policy. When they did make an agreement, it was too late.
Philip II's goals was to conquer Persia. Why did Alexander continue his campaign of conquest after his goal had been achieved?
Alexander continued his campaign of conquest because he was more interested in expanding his empire than governing it.
What was the full extent of Alexander's empire before his death? What happened to Alexander's empire after his death?
Alexander's empire stretched across 3 continents from Greece, India, Macedonia, And Egypt. After his death, the Macedonian generals fought among themselves for control of his empire.
How did trade contribute to the overall cultural diversity in the Hellenistic city of Alexandria?
Alexandria became the foremost center of commerce. Trade ships from all around the Mediterranean docked in its harbor. Traders brought food, material items, customs, and traditions from all over the Mediterranean to Alexandria. This allowed the city to grow and prosper.
Explain Stoicism and Epicureanism; identify and similarities between the two.
Stoicism was founded by Zeno. Stoics proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of God or the natural laws that God established. Human desires, power, and wealth were dangerous distractions and should be checked. Humans were encouraged to control what they could and be united socially. Epicureanism was founded by Epicurus. Epicurus believed that the only real objects were those that the 5 senses perceived. They taught that their gods had no interests in humans and ruled the universe. Humans were to act virtuously and avoid any pain. They tried to achieve harmony of the body and mind.