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Consolidated Life case study


Bolman and Deal's Four Frame Model

-consists of structural frame, human resources frame, political frame, and symbolic frame
-objective: to show that there is more than one behavioral mode for leaders

Structural Frame

-problems can be lessened by providing structure, rules, and restructuring

Human Resources Frame

-organizations and people need each other
-problems arise when the fit between and individual and the organization is not good

Political Frame

-power struggles are a natural part of life in organizations
-problems arise due to different beliefs, interests, and preferences

Symbolic Frame

-what is most important is not what happened, but how an event is interpreted
-problems stem from different interpretations

The Conflict Process- 5 stages

1. Potential opposition or incompatibility
2. Cognition and Personalization
3. Intentions
4. Behavior
5. Outcomes

Stage 1 of Conflict Process

-potential opposition or incompatibility
-appearance of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise
-3 general condition categories:
1. communication- differing word connotations, noise
2. structure- size and specialization, tenure and conflict
3. personal variables- personality, emotions and value

Stage 2 of Conflict Process

-cognition and personalization
-if conditions cited in previous stage negatively affect something one party cares about, then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized

perceived conflict

(stage 2 of conflict process)
awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise

felt conflict

(stage 2 of conflict process)
emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility

Stage 3 of Conflict Process

-decisions to act in a given way
-5 conflict handling intentions:
1. competing
2. collaborating
3. avoiding
4. accommodating
5. compromising

Stage 4 of Conflict Process

-includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by conflicting parties
-overt conflict: party's behavior, other's reaction

Stage 5 of Conflict Process

-increased group performance vs decreased group performance
-functional outcomes
-dysfunctional outcomes

Functional Conflict

-occurs when low to moderate levels of conflict improve the effectiveness of a group
-conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, and encourages curiosity and interest among group members
-antidote of group think

Dysfunctional Conflict

-conflict that leads to a decline in communication or the performance of a group
-motivated by egos of employees with competing ambitions
-higher stress rate and likelihood employees will burn out

Task Conflict

-usually just as disruptive as relationship conflict
-conflict over content and goals of the work

Relationship Conflict

-almost always dysfunctional
-conflict based on interpersonal relationships

Process Conflict

-must be kept low to be productive
-conflict over how work gets done

Conflict Handling Intentions

1. Competing
2. Collaborating
3. Avoiding
4. Accommodating
5. Compromising


-one of the 5 Conflict Handling Intentions
-when one person seeks to satisfy his/her own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict


-one of the 5 Conflict Handling Intentions
-the parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view
-attempt to find a win-win situation


-one of the 5 Conflict Handling Intentions
-ignoring a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree


-one of the 5 Conflict Handling Intentions
-party may be willing to place the opponent's interests above his/her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship


-one of the 5 Conflict Handling Intentions
-willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties' concerns

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