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MGT 301 - Chapter 11: Leading

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Initiating Structure vs. Consideration
are two dimensions of leader behavior identified in 1945 as a result of the Ohio State Leadership Studies.

According to the findings of these studies, leaders exhibit two types of behaviors:
- people-oriented (consideration)
- task oriented (initiating structure)
to facilitate goal accomplishment.

Prior to 1945, most studies of leadership sought to identify the individual traits of effective leaders.

Trait theories of leadership were the first to attempt a systematic approach of studying leaderships. However these studies yielded disappointing results when no set of traits were found that explain effective leadership.

in 1945, a group of researchers at the Ohio State Uni sought to identify the observable behaviors of leaders instead of identifying personality traits.

the study led to the creation of the LBDQ (Leaders Behavior Description Questionnatire) which would rate leaders on how frequently they engaged in a certain behavior.
Consideration
consideration is the extent to which a leader exhibits concern for the welfare of the members of the group.

this factor is oriented towards interpersonal relationship, mutual trust and friendship.

this leadership style is people-oriented.

- being friendly and approachable
- treating all group members as his/her equal
- looking out for the personal welfare of group members
- making him/herself accessible to group members.
Initiating Structure
initiating structure is the extent to which a leader defines leader and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how tasks are to be accomplished by the group.

this leadership style is task-oriented.

- letting group members know what is expected of them
- maintaining definite standards of performance
- scheduling the work to be done
- asking that group members follow standard rules and regulations.
Task-Oriented vs. Relationship-Oriented Leadership
Task-oriented (or task-focused) leadership is a behavioral approach in which the leader focuses on the tasks that need to be performed in order to meet certain goals, or to achieve a certain performance standard. Relationship-oriented (or relationship-focused) leadership is a behavioral approach in which the leader focuses on the satisfaction, motivation and the general well-being of the team members.
Task-Oriented Leadership
Task-oriented leaders focus on getting the necessary task, or series of tasks, at hand in order to achieve a goal. These leaders are typically less concerned with the idea of catering to employees, and more concerned with finding the step-by-step solution required to meet specific goals.

They will often actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, and plan, organize, and monitor progress within the team.
The advantages of task-oriented leadership is that it ensures that deadlines are met and jobs are completed, and it's especially useful for team members who don't manage their time well. Additionally, these types of leaders will tend to exemplify strong understanding of how to get the job done by focusing on the necessary workplace procedures, thus can delegate work accordingly in order to ensure that everything gets done in a timely and productive manner.


However, because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about their team's well-being, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, including causing motivation and retention problems.
Relationship-Oriented Leadership
Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on supporting, motivating and developing the people on their teams and the relationships within. This style of leadership encourages good teamwork and collaboration, through fostering positive relationships and good communication. Relationship-oriented leaders prioritize the welfare of everyone in the group, and will place time and effort in meeting the individual needs of everyone involved. This may involve offering incentives like bonuses, providing mediation to deal with workplace or classroom conflicts, having more casual interactions with team members to learn about their strengths and weaknesses, creating a non-competitive and transparent work environment, or just leading in a personable or encouraging manner.
Theory X vs. Theory Y
- created by Douglas McGregor
- about understanding team member motivation
- the theories look at how a manager's perceptions of what motivates his or her team members affects the way he or she behaves. By understanding how your assumptions about employees' motivation can influence your management style, you can adapt your approach appropriately, and so manage people more effectively.

your management style is strongly influenced by your beliefs and assumptions about what motivates members of your team: if you believe that team members dislike work, you will tend towards an authoritarian style of management; On the other hand, if you assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, you will tend to adopt a more participative style.
Theory X
This assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management and more centralized control.

According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done.

this style of management assumes that workers:
- dislike working
- avoid responsibility and need to be directed
- have to be controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed.
- need to be supervised at every step, with controls put in place.
- need to be enticed to produce results; otherwise they have no ambition or incentive to work.

X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized.

Theory X employees tend to have specialized and often repetitive work.

Theory X organizations work on a 'carrot and stick' basis, and performance appraisal is part of the overall mechanisms of control

McGregor recognized that X-Type workers are in fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be required and can be unavoidable.
Theory Y
This expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. It assumes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility.

It assumes workers:
- take responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given
- seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction
- consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.

This more participative management style tends to be more widely applicable. In Y-Type organizations, people at lower levels of the organization are involved in decision making and have more responsibility.

Management involves employees in decision making, but retains power to implement decisions.

Theory Y work tends to be organized around wider areas of skill or knowledge; Employees are also encouraged to develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements.

Theory Y organizations, appraisal is also regular and important, but is usually a separate mechanism from organizational controls. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion
Autocratic vs. Democratic Leadership
"Autocratic" and "democratic" are terms used to define end points of a continuum developed over the years by those who study such things
Autocratic Leadership
According to Bernard Bass, an author and researcher of all things leadership, the autocratic leader tends to:

- be arbitrary, controlling, power-orientated, coercive, punitive, and close-minded;
- foster in subordinates greater resentment, less loyalty, less commitment, less involvement, and less satisfaction;
- take full and sole responsibility for decisions and control of followers' performance;
- stress obedience, loyalty, and strict adherence to the rules; and
- make and enforce the rules and see that decisions are carried out.
Democratic Leadership
Democratic leaders on the other hand demonstrate the following attributes:

- leadership is considerate, consultative, participative, consensual, employee-centered, concerned with people, concerned with the maintenance of good working relations, supportive and orientated toward facilitating interaction, and relations-orientated;
- a belief that workers are internally motivated to do well and seek autonomy and the opportunity to prove their worth; and
- move decision-making to lower levels, encourage questioning and ideas, open to criticism, treat subordinates' mistakes as learning opportunities, celebrate subordinates' accomplishments, promote subordinates' ideas to higher authority.
The Leadership Grid
The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:
1. Concern for People
2. Concern for Results/Production
Concern for People:
This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Concern for Results/Production:
This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Impoverished Management - Low Results/Low People
focuses on people's needs, building relationships.

This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony.
Country Club Management - High People/Low Results
Focuses on people's needs, building relationships.

This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Authority-Obediance Management- High Results/Low People
Focuses on efficiency of tasks and operations.

Also known as Authoritarian or "Produce or Perish" Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees.
Team Manager - High Production/High People
Focuses on building participation and support for a shared purpose.

According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the best managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly.

The premise here is that employees understand the organization's purpose and are involved in determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization's success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high results. --> THEORY Y
Middle-of-the-Road Management - Medium Results/Medium People
Focuses on balancing work output and morale.

This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns, and it may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern, so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
Universal Prescription
...
Correlation Studies
...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES:
- Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory
- House's Path-Goal Theory
- Vroom-Jago's Decision-Tree Theory
- Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory
Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory
- matching leadership to a style

The Fiedler Contingency Model was created in the mid 1960s by Fred Fiedler.

The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Instead, a leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. This is the result of two factors- "leadership style" and "situational favorableness" (later called "situational control").

Identifying leadership style is the first step in using the model. Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed, and it can be measured using a scale he developed called Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale.

The scale asks you to think about the person who you've least enjoyed working with. This can be a person who you've worked with in your job, or in education or training.

You then rate how you feel about this person for each factor, and add up your scores. If your total score is high, you're likely to be a relationship-oriented leader. If your total score is low, you're more likely to be task-oriented leader.

The model says that task-oriented leaders usually view their LPCs more negatively, resulting in a lower score. Fiedler called these low LPC-leaders. He said that low LPCs are very effective at completing tasks. They're quick to organize a group to get tasks and projects done. Relationship-building is a low priority.

However, relationship-oriented leaders usually view their LPCs more positively, giving them a higher score. These are high-LPC leaders. High LPCs focus more on personal connections, and they're good at avoiding and managing conflict. They're better able to make complex decisions.

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/fiedler.htm
House's Path-Goal Theory
Imagine that your boss has just assigned a major project to your new team. There are some very talented people within the team, but you've worked with them in the past, and it wasn't a pleasant experience...

You've always felt that the best way to manage a fast-paced, expert team is to set objectives, and then let team members work out how they'll deliver for themselves. You don't want to interfere with what they're doing, so you rarely have meetings with individuals or with the group.

The problem is that the team hasn't responded well to this approach. So what else should you do? Would daily meetings waste your people's time? And would they be annoyed if you involved yourself more in decision-making, or gave them more guidance on the project?

When thinking about the best way to lead a team, we have to consider several different factors, and it's easy choose the wrong approach. When this happens, morale, effectiveness, and productivity can suffer.

Path-Goal Theory helps you identify an effective approach to leadership, based on what your people want and your current situation. In this article, we'll look at Path-Goal Theory, and we'll explore how you can apply it to your own situation.
About Path-Goal Theory
Leadership Responsibilities

According to it, if you want your people to achieve their goals, you need to help, support, and motivate them. You can do this in three ways:

Helping them identify and achieve their goals.
Clearing away obstacles, thereby improving performance.
Offering appropriate rewards along the way.
To do this, you can use four different types of leadership:

Supportive leadership - Here, you focus on relationships. You show sensitivity to individual team members' needs, and you consider your team members' best interests. This leadership style is best when tasks are repetitive or stressful.

Directive leadership - With this, you communicate goals and expectations, and you assign clear tasks. This style works best when tasks or projects are unstructured, or when tasks are complex and team members are inexperienced.

Participative leadership - With participative leadership, you focus on mutual participation. You consult with your group, and you consider their ideas and expertise before making a decision. This approach works best when your team members are experienced, when the task is complex and challenging, and when your team members want to give you their input.

Achievement-oriented leadership - Here, you set challenging goals for your team. You have confidence in your team's abilities, so you expect your team to perform well, and you maintain high standards for everyone. This style works best when team members are unmotivated or unchallenged in their work.
Vroom-Jago's Decision-Tree Theory
Another contingency leadership theory focuses on how managers lead through their use of decision-making methods. The Vroom-Jago leader-participation model views a manager as having three decision options, and in true contingency fashion, no one option is always superior to the others.

1. AUTHORITY DECISION - The manager makes an individual decision about how to solve the problem and then communicates the decision to the group.

2. CONSULTATIVE DECISION - The manager makes the decision after sharing the problem with and getting suggestions from individual group members or the group as a whole.

3. GROUP DECISION - The manager convenes the group, shares the problem, and then either facilitates a group decision or delegates he decision to the group.

Leadership success results when the manager's chose of decision-making method best matches the nature of the problem to be solved. The rules for making the choice involve three criteria:
(1) decision quality - based on who has the information needed for problem solving
(2) decision acceptance - based on the importance of follower acceptance of the decision to its eventual implementation, and
(3) decision time - based on the time available to make and implement the decision.
Decision Types:
Authority Decision works best when:
- leaders have the expertise needed to solve the problem
- they are confident and capable of acting alone
- others are likely to accept and implement the decision they make
- little time is available for discussion

Consultative and Group Decisions work best when:
- the leader lacks sufficient expertise and information to solve this problem alone.
- the problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation
- acceptance of the decision and commitment by others are necessary for implementation
- adequate time is available to allow for true participation.

--> a potential cost of participation is lost efficiency.
Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory
The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory has two pillars: leadership style and the maturity level of those being led. To Hersey and Blanchard, their leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination:

S-1 Telling
S-2 Selling
S-3 Participating
S-4 Delegating.

The leadership style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the task and behavior as to relationship with the group
Situational Leadership Theory (cont)
S-1
"Telling" behavior simply is a unidirectional flow of information from the leader to the group. "Do this task in this manner because of [whatever] at this location, and get it finished by [whenever]". Transactional leadership techniques operate here.

S-2
In the "selling" behavior, the leader attempts to convince the group of that the leader should lead by providing social and emotional support to the individual being convinced. There is two-way communication, but it is clear that the leader is leading. Explaining Decisions.

S-3
With "participating" behavior, the leader shares decision making with the group, making the system more democratic. There is less of an emphasis on accomplishing an objective than building human relations.

S-4
The fourth type of behavior in leadership style, "delegating" is reflected by parceling out tasks to group members. The leader still is in charge but there is more of an emphasis on monitoring the ones delegated with the tasks.
Transformational Leadership
is inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance.

Transformational Leadership inspires enthusiasm and great performance! It is a person who possesses leadership traits, knows leadership behaviors, and understands situational contingencies to act effectively.

ex: Martin Luther King, in his famous "I have a dream" speech. Some people call King "charismatic leaders" because of their ability to inspire others in exceptional ways.

Transformational leaders use their personalities to inspire followers and get them so highly exited about their jobs and organizational goals that they strive for truly extraordinary performance accomplishments. Indeed, the easiest way to spot a truly transformational leader is through his or her followers. They are likely to be enthusiastic about the leader and loyal and devoted to his or her ideas and to work exceptionally hard together to support them.

The goal of achieving excellence in transformational leadership is a stiff personal development challenge.

Transformational leaders raise the confidence, aspirations, and performance of followers through these special qualities:

- VISION --> has ideas and a clear sense of direction; communicates them to others; develops excitement about accomplishing shared "dreams"

- CHARISMA --> uses the power of personal reference and emotion to arouse others' enthusiasm, faith, loyalty, pride, and trust in themselves

- SYMBOLISM --> identifies "heroes", and holds spontaneous and planned ceremonies to celebrate excellence and high achievement.

- EMPOWERMENT --> helps others grow and develop by removing performance obstacles, sharing responsibilities, and delegating truly challenging work.

- INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION --> gains the involvement of others by creating awareness of problems and stirring their imaginations.

- INTEGRITY --> is honest and credible; acts consistently and out of personal conviction; follows through on commitments.
Charismatic Leader
develops special leader-follower relationships and inspires followers in extraordinary ways. ---> MLK

Today, it is considered one of several personal qualities - including honesty, credibility, and competence, that we should be able to develop with foresight and practice.
Transactional Leadership
directs the efforts of others through tasks, rewards, and structures.

What is missing in the transactional approach is attention to things typically linked with superseders - enthusiasm and inspiration for example. ---> (transformational leaders have those characteristics)
Servant Leadership
means serving others and helping them use their talents to help organizations benefit society.

A classic observation about great leaders is that they view leadership as a responsibility, not a rank. This is servant leadership.

The most important person in leadership is the followers. Servant leadership is "other centered" and not "self-centered". It shifts the leader's focus away from the self and toward others, and creates EMPOWERMENT by giving people job freedom and opportunities to influence what happens in the organization.

Ten Characteristics:
- listen
- empathy
- healing of suffering
- self-awareness of strengths and weaknesses
- use of persuasion rather than positional authority
- conceptual thinking
- futuristic - foresee future outcomes
- stewardship of employees and resources
- growth of people
- community building within and outside the org.
Empowerment
gives people job freedom and power to influence what happens in the organization.
Level 5 Leadership
The concept came about during a study that began in 1996, when Collins began researching what makes a great company. He started by looking at 1,435 companies, and ended up choosing 11 truly great ones. These 11 companies were all headed by what Collins called "Level 5 Leaders."

He found that these leaders have humility, and they don't seek success for their own glory; rather, success is necessary so that the team and organization can thrive. They share credit for success, and they're the first to accept blame for mistakes. Collins also says that they're often shy, but fearless when it comes to making decisions, especially ones that most other people consider risky.

Level 5 Leaders also possess qualities found in four other levels of leadership that Collins identified. Although you don't have to pass sequentially through each individual level before you become a Level 5 Leader, you must have the skills and capabilities found in each level of the hierarchy.

Level 1 Leadership - Capable Individual
Level 2 Leadership - Contributing Team Member
Level 3 Leadership - Competent Manager
Level 4 Leadership - "The Effective/Efficient Leader"
Level 5 Leadership - Executive
Emotional Intelligence
EI is the ability to manage our emotions in leadership and social relationships.

Popularized by the work of Daniel Goleman, EI is an ability to understand emotions in yourself and others and use this understanding to handle one's social relationships effectively.

Primary EI Competencies:
-1. SELF-AWARENESS --> is the ability to understand our own moods and emotions and to understand their impact on our work and on others.
2. SOCIAL AWARENESS --> is the ability to empathize, to understand the emotions of others, and to use this understanding to better deal with them.
3. SELF-MANAGEMENT --> or self-regulation, is the ability to think before acting and to be in control of otherwise disruptive impulses.
4. RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT --> is the ability tot establish rapport with others in ways that build good relationships and influence their emotions in positive ways.
Emotional Intelligene Quotient (EQ)
is a measure of a person's ability to manage emotions in leadership and social relationships.
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