Ancient Greece Sparta Athens Persia
Terms in this set (43)
The people who were defeated by Sparta who were forced to be slaves were called Helots.
They worked mostly on farms and had to give the Spartans 1/2 of their crops.
They rebelled many times and fought hard. There were more Helots than Spartans but the Spartans put down the revolts.
Because Spartans were afraid the Helots would keep revolting made Sparta become a state that focused EVERYTHING on being a strong army.
Part Monarchy (2 Kings ruled Sparta)
Part Oligarchy ( 5 Elected supervisors ran the government)
The council of Elders ( made up of 30 older citizens proposed laws.)
Part Democracy ( all Spartan citizens were part of the Assembly. It elected officials and voted on laws proposed by the Council of Elders)
Social groups of Spartan society
Citizens lived in the city and spent all time training to be soldiers
Free noncitizens lived in nearby villages. No political rights.
Helots lowest group. Labor fed Sparta so free Spartans could be soldiers.
Spartan boys education
At age 7 moved into barracks.
Learned DISCIPLINE, DUTY, STRENGTH, MILITARY SKILL
Spartan Male citizens enter army at age 20 and serve until age 60.
Even after men marry they eat with fellow soldiers.
Spartan women education
Spartan women were raised to be tough emotionally and physically.
Education focused on making them strong.
Athletic training and learning to defend themselves.
More freedom than in other Greek city-states.
Allowed to own property.
Expected to take watch husband's property if they were at war.
Athens government overall
All citizens met to vote on laws.
Only free men were citizens.
Athens government specific
2 governing bodies
The Council of four hundred
Athens The Council of Four Hundred
Took care of day to day problems
Athens The Assembly
Voted on policies proposed by The Council
Had to serve in the army when needed.
Had to serve on juries.
Several hundred people to hear charges against a person.
All citizens were equal in the court.
No professional lawyers or judges.
Citizens argued their case in front of the jury.
Athens citizens classes of people
4 classes (based on Solon's reform) organized based on income
1/3 of the population of Athens
Worked in agriculture, homes, industry and mines.
Some alongsid master.
Some earned wages.
Boys of wealthy families start school at 6 or 7.
Prepared boys to be good citizens.
Studied logic and public speaking to help them debate in The Assembly as adults.
Studied reading, writing, poetry, arithmetic, music.
Athletic activities to build strong bodies.
Expected to be good wives and mothers.
These roles were respected because they helped keep family and society strong.
Some women fulfilled religious roles and were priestesses in Temples.
Women could only inherit property if their fathers had no sons.
Could NOT attend school.
Learned househole duties.
Few learned to read and write.
Athens women had less freedom than Spartan women.
499 BC - 449 BC
Persia conquers Anatolia 500 BC - an area that had many Greek colonies
Athens supported Anatolia and they lost
Persia wanted revenge so in 490BC they attacked again at the plain of Marathon
This started the war with athens
King Darius I of Persia
Darius the Great
Invaded At Marathon
Battle at Marathon
In 490 BC the Persians arrived near Athens on the plain of MARATHON.
Athenians are outnumbered so they come up with a military plan.
They Athenians are outnumbered by the Persians but they use smart military tactics to win.
A soldier ran 25 miles to Athens to deliver the victory message. That is where modern day marathon comes from.
Athens Plan to defeat Persian attack at Marathon
They drew the Persians toward the center of the Greek line.
Greeks surrounded them and attacked.
Greeks spears better than Persian arrows.
Persians lost 6,400 men
Greeks lost 192 men.
Greek victory against Persia 480 BC
480 BC persia invades Greece.
Several Greek city-states unite against Persia.
King Xerxes I
Son of King Darius I
Xerxes was the King who invaded greece at the Battle of Thermopylae
Spartans and the invasion at THERMOPYLAE
300 Spartans guard the narrow pass at THERMOPYLAE to stop Persian army from reaching Athens.
Spartans held the pass for 2 days before Persian army kills all Spartans.
But it gave Athens time to prepare for battle.
Athens and The invasion at THERMOPYLAE
After 300 Spartans hold the pass for 2 days and are then killed ,
The Athenians left Athens to fight a naval battle.
The battle took place in a narrow body of water where the Persian boats could barely move.
Smaller Greek ships sunk 300 Persian boats ending the war.
This victory ended the Persian War
Leader in Athens from 460 BC to 429 Bc
Very strong leader. So important that the time he ruled was called
The Age of Pericles.
Pericles goals to strengthen Athens democracy
Increased number of paid political positions.
Because only wealthy people could afford to serve, when people were paid to serve more poorer citizens got to participate in the governement.
Pericles goals for Athens
First to strengthen democracy
Second to expand the power and wealth of Athens
Third to beautify Athens
Pericles expands power and wealth of Athens
Greek wealth depended on trade.
Athens wants to protect overseas trade and homeland
Delian League was formed
A league formed by Athens to unite Greek city-states for power and to defend themselves against attacks
First headquarters was in Delos
Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BCE
Delian league members
Mostly coastal Greek city-states
Sparta did not join. Formed separate league
Athens made city-states pay dues with ships first then money
Wanted to strengthen navy
Use money to rebuild Athens.
Acropolis and Parthenon
Rules of Delian league
City-States had to pay the dues
Could not leave league or threatened by Athens that the members would not be protected
Athens started treating the other members as conquered people
Soon all members became part of Athenian empire
Money in Delian League
Pericles used money in the Delian league to rebuild Athens
The Acropolis which had been destroyed and
Commissioned the Parthenon
Pericles had Parthenon built using Delian League money
A building for Athena a goddess
warrior who protected Athens)
Built on the Acropolis
an area in a Greek city where important buildings and temples are located
between Sparta and Athens
SPARTA. Military state
ATHENS. Democratic government
Reason for Peloponnesian War
1. Some city-states feared Athens because their grab for power and prestige
2. Pericles built a very strong navy
3. Some Athenian settlers moved into lands other than the city-states
Sparta made this to stand up to Delian League run by Athens
Spartas Peloponnesian War strategy
They were land based and had a strong army
Because they were in areas away from the sea they could not be attacked by Athens ships
They cut off food supply to Athens by destroying crops
They took control of the countryside
Athens Peloponnesian war strategy
Athens was navy based so they stayed away from land battle and battled on the sea
Pericles convinced people of Athens to let Sparta take land and focused on sea battles
Built a wall along Athens to the seaport Piraeus
Brought people in from other areas inside the walls of Athens to protect them
People would get food and supplies by sea
Athens downfall in Peloponnesian War
Because Pericles brought people inside walls of Athens it became overcrowded
Much disease THE PLAGUE came and spreads easily killed many people
1/3 of people and army died from Plague
Pericles dies from Plague
421 BC Athens signs a treaty to stop fighting
404 BC Peloponnesian ends
End of Peloponnesian war Athens surrenders to Sparta
Consequences of Peloponnesian War
Thousands and thousands of Athenians killed
Crops and cities destroyed