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4.4 Climate Change
Terms in this set (14)
Name 5 Greenhouse gases.
H2O, CO2, CH4, NOx, CFC15
What are the most significant greenhouse gases? Why?
Carbon dioxide and water vapour. This is due to their higher concentrations in the atmosphere. As water vapour reaches saturation point redily it condenses and falls back to the hydroshpere/lithosphere.
How long do these gases stay in the atmosphere?
Water molecules stay about 3-7 days so it's concentration isn't changing. Carbon dioxide however is increasing which causes it to stay in the atmosphere much longer-even decades. Increases global warming.
What are 2 other greenhouse gases and their effects.
Methane and Nitrogen Oxides. They have a lower concentration however both have greater radiative reflection capacity. They contribute to enhanced greenhouse gas effect. They are expected to get worse.
What does the impact of gas depend on?
Its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as it's concentration in the atmosphere.
Which gas is the most effective to trap heat in the atmosphere?
Each greenhouse gas differs in ability to absorb heat in the atmosphere. HFCs and PFCs are most heat absorbent. Methane traps over 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon while nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per mol. than carbon.
What does the warmed Earth emit? What happens to this?
Longer wavelength radiation, this is infra-red radiation.
The radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that then retain the heat in the atmosphere.
What are global temperatures influenced by? How do we know this?
Concentrations of Greenhouse gases. This is seen by the mean annual/seasonal/monthly temperatures taken at many locations. These minimum and maximums have revealed warming trends over wide regions of the plant in the last 50yrs, especially areas with heat trapped in the atmosphere.
What is Climate?
The average weather experienced over a extended period of time. Includes expectations of generalized temperature, rainfall, wind ect. relevant to a location.
What does this rise in temperature mean for us?
More intense weather expectations eg. heavier rainfall, stronger storms and longer droughts. May result in colder polar winds or in other regions heat waves could be experienced. Weather will be more dramatic and for humans this will impact food production and water connection.
Since the Industrial Revolution 200yrs ago what links are made to the rise in temperature.
The increase of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.
Why is there more carbon dioxide?
Due to the increase of the combustion of fossilized organic matter used by human societies. The only other explanation possible is volcanic eruptions however it's not consistent with the steady increase.
How is this temperature rise effecting our oceans?
The carbon dissolves into our oceans and reacts with water to become hydrogen carbonate ions and releases a free protons. Causes ocean solidification.
What is the result to the lower pH levels in the ocean?
Organisms dependent on building carbonate structures such as reefs and shells have to use more energy to do so. Makes survival more difficult and could lead to extinction.
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