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46 terms

Ch 14 Cardiovascular: Vessels LPN

MED165 Night Human Anatomy & Physiology II Term3 2012 ECPI University
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vascular system
consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries, through which blood circulates
heart blood flow
IVC/SVC→RA→tricuspid→RV→pulmonary valve →p. trunk→p. arteries→LUNGS→p. veins→LA→bicuspid→LV→aortic valve→aorta→BODY
lumen
cavity or passage in a tubular organ
(ie, through which blood flows)
angi/o
vessel
-sclerosis
abnormal hardening
-stenosis
abnormal narrowing
aort/o
aorta
arter/i
arery
spasm
tightening, cramping
ven/o
vein;
aka phleb/o
phleb/o
vein;
aka ven/o
valvul/o
valve
artery
smaller, thick-walled vessels carrying high-pressure blood away from heart;
all arteries carry O2-blood (red), except pulmonary artery
arteriole
small branch off an artery
vein
larger, thin-walled vessels carrying low-pressure blood in to heart;
1-way valves & skeletal muscles help return blood to heart;
all veins carry de-O2-blood (blue), except pulmonary vein
venule
small branches into a vein
tunica adventitia
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica externa
tunica externa
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica adventitia
tunica media
middle layer of blood vessel;
smooth muscle tissue;
thicker in arteries than veins
tunica intima
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica interna
tunica interna
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica intima
endothelium
smooth, innermost lining of blood vessels
capillary
microscopic vessels connecting arterioles to venules;
where material exchange occurs (eg, gas, nutrients);
often only 1-cell thick
cardiopulmonary circulation
heart pumps de-O2 blood to lungs & receives O2 blood from lungs;
RV→pulm. valve.→pulm. trunk→pulm arteries→LUNGS→pulm. veins→LA
systemic circulation
heart pumps O2 (oxihemoglobin), nutrients, water, hormones & wastes to and from all organ systems;
LA→aortic valve→aorta→BODY→IVC/SVC→RA
aorta
largest artery in body;
attached to left ventricle;
parts: ascending, arch, descending (thoracic and abdominal)
coronary artery
1 of 2 arteries, which branch off base of ascending aorta;
provde O2-rich blood to myocardium
brachiocephalic artery
first artery branching off aortic arch;
further divides into right common carotid and right subclavian artery
common carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off either brachiocephalic (R) or artic arch (L);
provide blood to entire head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
internal carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to brain
external carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to face, head, & neck
right subclavian artery
branched off of the brachiocephalic;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
vertebral artery
1 of 2 arteries that branch off subclavian arteries, then course up vertebrae into brain
left common carotid artery
second branch off aortic arch;
provides blood to neck & head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
left subclavian artery
third branch off aortic arch;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
lower thoracic aorta
superior part of descending aorta, which supplies blood to chest organs
(eg, lungs, diaphragm, esophagus, chest muscles)
abdominal aorta
inferior part of descending aorta (beneath diphragm), which supplies blood to abdominal organs;
branches into L & R common iliac arteries
common iliac artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R) that branch off the end of descending aorta; course into pelvis, then branches into internal and external iliac arteries
vasoconstriction
blood vessel tightening, which decreases lumen size;
also increases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media contracts
vasodilation
blood vessel relaxes, which increases lumen size;
also decreases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media relaxes;
aka vasodilatation
jugular vein
one of the veins that collect blood from head: brain (L&R internal), face (L&R external), and chin (anterior);
all flow into the brachiocephalic veins, which connect to SVC
great saphenous vein
longest vein in body;
drains blood from foot, leg, and thigh;
joins with femoral vein
coronary sinus
vein that returns de-O2 blood from heart to RA
hepatic portal circulation
liver blood vessels that connect two capillary beds: arteries→caps→portal vein→caps
fetal circulation
special vessels and circulation present in fetus;
includes de-O2 blood in umbilical arteries coursing to placenta, and O2 nutrient-rich blood via umbilical veins
placenta
vascular uterine structure conected to fetus via umbilical cord;
providing O2 and nutrients to fetus and removes wastes from fetus