Physical Therapy HOSA

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anginacondition in which chest pain occurs from ischemiaangiographytechnique in which radiopaque material is injected into the blood vessels to better visualize and identify problem such as occlusion (blockage) of blood vessels, aneurysms, and vascular malformationsaquatic physical therapyTherapeutic use of water for rehabilitation or prevention of injuryarterial insufficiencydeficiency or occlusion of blood flow through an arteryarteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesassessmentmeasurement or assigned value by which physical therapists make a clinical judgementassistive devicedevice that provides individuals with assistance to perform tasks or during periods of mobilityautismA neural developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication skills, and repetitive behaviorsautonomous practiceservices provided by physical therapists using independent, professional judgement within their scope of practicebariatricsArea of health care that deals with the origin, prevention, and treatment of obesityblood gas analysisassessment of blood (usually arterial) to determine the con-centrations of oxygen and carbon dioxidebradykinesiaslowness of movementsbrunnstrom approachneurologic technique based on the natural sequence of recovery after strokebursitisinflammation of bursae, fluid-filled sacs located throughout the body that decrease the friction between two structurescardiac catheterizationpassage of a catheter (a flexible tube) into an artery in the arm or leg, then along the artery to reach the heart and measure pressure, inject dye, or take a tissue samplecardiac muscle dysfunctionvarious pathologic conditions associated with heart failurecardiac pacemakerelectronic device that produces a pulse to control heart depolarizationcerebral palsy (CP)group of conditions caused by a nonprogressive lesion on the brain. Most often CP has origin during gestation (before birth), at birth, or immediately after birth and is caused by an interruption of oxygen to the brain of the fetus or newborncertificationprocess by which state legally regulates the use of professional title without creating a separate scope of practice. state law will not permit use of the title unless state standards are met. This differs from the private certification offered by private organizations for meeting the standards of that organization. CHAPTERchronic inflammationlow-grade, protracted inflammatory processchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)group of disorders that produce certain specific physical symptoms, including chronic productive cough, excessive mucus production, changes in the sound produced when air passes through the bronchial tubes, and shortness of breathcivil lawlaw of a jurisdiction concerned with private rights and remedies; the administration of justice involving the violation of private duties owed by individualsclientindividual who seeks the services of a physical therapist to maintain health, or a business that hires a physical therapist as a consultantclosed kinetic chain exerciseexercise incorporating several muscle groups through the use of several joints with the end segment fixedclubfootdisorder in which the foot is turned inward and slanted upwardcode of ethicsprinciples set forth for the physical therapy profession by APTA for maintaining and promoting ethical practicecollagensupportive, strong, and fibrous connective tissue protein that is found in the dermis, tendon, cartilage, fascia, ligament, and bonecommon lawlaw created by court decision rather than by legislative actioncomputed (axial) tomography (CAT or CT)computer synthesis of x rays transmitted through a specific plane of the bodyconducting airwayspassageways and tubes that allow air to pass into or out of the lungscongestive heart failure (CHF)condition in which the heart muscle is compromised to the point that it cannot move blood volume effectivelycontractagreement between two or more persons that creates a legal obligation to do, or not do, a particular thingcoronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)grafting (attaching) a small artery or a leg vein to a point beyond the blockage or plaquecoronary heart disease (CHD)arteriosclerosis, or a hardening of the arteries, affecting the coronary vesselscriminal lawadministration of justice, through the enforcement of the criminal code of a state or of the united states; involves violations of duties owed to society at largecryotherapyapplication of cold agents to cause decreases in blood flow and metabolism, which result in a decrease in swelling and paincystic fibrosis (CF)most common inherited chronic pulmonary disease among white children, characterized by production of thick mucus with progressive lung damagedeductibleamount of money that must be paid by insured before a health insurer will assume any liability for covered servicesdermatitisinflammation of the skindermisportion of the skin directly under the dermis; it is made up of fibrous connective tissue and supports sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves and nerve endings, blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, and their allied smooth muscledevelopmental coordination disorder (DCD)motor condition in children encompassing a wide range of dysfunctions, including gross or fine motor coordination problems such as awkward running, frequent falling, slow reaction times, immature balance reactions, poor handwriting, and difficulty with activities of daily living such as dressingdevelopmental delayfailure to attain predictable movement patterns or behaviors associated with children of a similar chronologic agedevelopmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)dislocation resulting from the abnormal development of some of the structures surrounding the hip joint, allowing the head of the femur to move in and out of the hip socket, cause is unknowndevelopmental milestonemovement pattern that appears at a certain stage of growth and developmentdiagnosisfinal interpretation of findings based on examinationsdirect accessavailability of the physical therapist to anyone seeking physical therapy services without stipulation of a referral by another health care providerdisablement modelconceptual approach to health care based on the functional abilities of the patient/client that results from a medical conditiondisablement processexamination process that focuses on the individual's impairments, functional limitations, disability, and resultant restrictions in activitesdischargetermination of services when goals have been achieveddiscontinuationtermination of services as determined by the patient/client or physical therapistdown syndromecongenital developmental disability caused by a defect of chromosome 21; sometimes called trisomy 21. characterized by low muscle tone, a flat facial profile, upwardly slanted eyes, short stature, varying levels of intellectual ability, slowed growth and development, a small nose with a low nasal bridge, and congenital heart diseaseduchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)progressive pelvic muscle weakness and wasting in the male child, combined with enlarged, yet weak, thigh muscles and tight heel cordsdynamic balncebalance maintained with the body in motiondynamical systems theorytreatment approach in children that incorporates all of the body's systems with the environment to facilitate or inhibit movements. process of moving rather than the product of movementdysfunctionany functional disabilitydyspneashortness of breathechocardiographytechnique using high-frequency ultrasound to assess the size of the heart chambers, the thickness of the chamber walls, and the motion of the chamber walls and heart valveseclectic approachcombination of therapeutic approaches used by the physical therapist and thought to be useful for treatment of a given clientelectrical stimulationapplication of electricity at specified locations to stimulate nerves, muscles, and other soft tissues to reduce pain and swelling, to increase strength and range of motion, and to facilitate wound healingelectrocardiogram (ECG)readout produced by placing electrodes on the anterior chest wall to record depolarization or contraction of the heart muscle assess the heart's rate and rhythmelectroencephalography (EEG)technique for recording the electrical potential or activity in the brain by placing electrodes on the scalpelectromyography (EMG)technique for recording the electrical activity in the muscle during a state of rest and during voluntary contractionembolusclot formed by a substance detached from elsewhereenablement processexamination process that focuses on the individual's structural body and concurrent abilities while addressing age-appropriate movement patterns and activitesentitlementright or privilegeepidermisouter layer of the skinergonomicsrelationship between the worker, tasks, and work environmentevaluationjudgment based on an examinationevidence-based practiceinterventions used in physical therapy, based on research that demonstrates the reliability and validity of the proceduresexaminationprocess of gathering info about the past and current status of the patient/clientexercise stress testingnoninvasive method of determining how the cardiovascular and pulmonary system respond to controlled increases in activity; most frequently used to diagnose or assess suspected or established cardiovascular diseaseexpirationbreathing outexpressive aphasiaimpaired ability to express oneselffamily assessmentfamily interview, survey, or discussion used to obtain the family's insights regarding a patient, espically a child; includes family history, relationships, concerns, needs, and resources.fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)most severe condition in a continuum of alcohol induced disabilities related to high levels of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancyflexibilityability to move a limb segment through a range of motionflexibility exerciseexercise performed over time, using stress, to change the length and elasticity of soft tissue such as muscle; usually performed for postural or ROM enhancementfluidotherapyuse of a self-contained unit filled with sawdust-type particles heated to the desired temperature and circulated by air pressure around the involved body partfoundation for physical therapyorganization, separate from APTA, that promotes and provides financial support for scientific research, clinical research, and health services research in physical therapyfracturebreak in bonefrail elderlypeople over age 65 yrs with conditions that significantly impair their daily functionfunctional capacity evaluationexamination of a worker's physical abilities to perform required tasksfunctional exerciseexercise that mimics functional movements and activates functional movements incorporate strength, flexibility, balance, and coordinationfunctional limitationdecreased ability of a person to perform a task, without regard to the context or environmentfunctional reach testspecific balance test that can predict the likelihood of fallinggoal-directed movement approachtreatment approach that emphasizes the importance of both task and environmental features as a primary impetus for movementgoalsmeasurable, functional objectives that are linked to a problem identified in a patient evaluationgoniometerinstrument used to measure and document ROMgoniometrymethods to measure and document ROMground substancesupportive, amorphous gel like substance secreted by fibro-blasts; fills space between connective tissue fibers and cellsguide to physical therapist practiceextensive description of the roles and scope of practice of a physical therapist.historydescription of the past and current health status of the patient/clienthot packpouch filled with silica gel and soaked in thermostatically controlled waterhydrotherapyuse of therapeutic effects of water by immersing the body part or entire body into a tank of waterhypermobile jointjoint with excessive motionhypertoniahigh muscle tonehypertrophic scarexcess of collagen deposited at the site of a healing or healed wound that is noticeably different from the normal skin; scar remains within the boundaries of the original woundhypokinesisstate of decreased activity or movementhypomobile jointjoint with less motion than is considered functionalhypotonialow muscle toneindividualized education plan (IEP)model using collaboration of therapists, family members, educators, and other health care team members to provide direct intervention in the classroom settingindividualized family service plan (IFSP)detailed total plan of care for the child in the context of the family unitinflammatory phasephase of wound healing encompassing vascular reactions that decrease blood loss and initiate vessel repair, and cellular responses that moderate blood loss, fight infection, and provide nutrition and oxygen to initiate and sustain tissue repairinflammatory skin diseasesdiseases of the skin whose causes invoke an inflammatory responseinspirationcontraction of the muscles of respiration, resulting in an increase in the space contained within the thoracic cavity. this expansion causes the air pressure to drop inside the lungs, resulting in movement of air into the lungsinstrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)activities that individuals must perform to function in the communityinterventionprocedure conducted with the patient/client to achieve the desired outcomesischemiainsufficient oxygenation of tissues resulting from a blocked blood vesseljoint mobilizationtechnique used when a patient's dysfunction is the result of joint stiffness or hypomobility (loss of motion); applies to joint-specific passive movements, either oscillatory (rapid repeated movements) or sustainedjuvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)one of the many rheumatic diseases characterized by an inflammation of the connective tissue that manifests as a painful inflamed jointkeloid scarexcess of collagen deposited at the site of a healing or healed wound that is noticeably different from the normal skin; scar commonly extends beyond the boundaries of the original woundLAMP documentdocument created by the section on Health Policy and Administration of the American Physical Therapy Association that describes behaviors for the development of leadership, administration, management, and professionalism in physical therapylawformal rule having binding legal force laid down ordained or established by a governing bodylicensureprocess by which the state grants permission to practice a profession to an individual who has met state standards and grants legal recognition to a particular scope of practicelow-context assumptionsassumptions found in cultures in which the individual is considered more important than the group.lumbar puncture (LP)injection of a hypodermic needle into the lumbar subarachnoid spacemagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)creation of a computer image by placing the body part in a magnetic fieldmalpracticefailure to do for avoid doing something that a reasonably prudent member of the profession would do, with subsequent injury to a patient/clientmanaged carearrangement in which an insurance company contracts with health care providers to provide health care to the consumers who subscribe to the insurance planmanual muscle testing (MMT)test allowing therapist to assign a specific grade to a muscle based on whether the patient can hold the limb against gravity, how much manual resistance can be tolerated, and whether there is full range of motion at a jointmassagesystematic use of various manual strokes designed to produce certain physiologic, mechanical, and psychological effectsmaturation phasephase of wound healing that includes collagen synthesis and lysis, as well as reorientation of the collagen fibers that remain at the wound site; this phase may also be referred to as the remodeling phase.meningocelebenign herniation of the meninges manifesting as a soft tissue cyst or lump that surrounds a normal spinal cord and produces no neurologic deficitsmeningomyeloceleopen congenital spinal cord lesion with minimal to no skin protection covering the deeper nerve roots. Most severe of the spinal closure defects that usually results in loss of motor function and sensation of the lower part of the bodymotor controlability to manipulate movement and nonmovement of the body's musculoskeletal componentsmotor developmentage-related processes of change in motor behaviormotor learningbody's mechanism for acquiring or learning voluntar motor controlmultiple sclerosis (MS)disease in which patches of demyelination occur in the nervous system, leading to disturbances in conduction of action potentials along the nervesmuscle enduranceability to produce and sustain tension over a prolonged period of timemuscle poweramount of work produced by a muscle in a given period of timemuscle strengthmaximal amount of tension an individual can produce in one reptitionmyofascial relasemanual stretching of the layers of the body's fascianational foundation for infantile paralysisfoundation established in 1938 in response to repeated polio epidemics. Established to provide research, education, and patient servicesnegligencefailure to do something that a reasonably prudent person would do or behavior that would normally not be done under similar circumstancesneoplastic skin diseasescancer affecting the skinnerve conduction velocity (NCV) studystudy that records the rate at which electrical signals are transmitted along peripheral nervesnerve entrapmentpressure on a nerveneural tube defectcondition in which the neural tube fails to close completely during the first month of gestational developmentneurodevelopmental treatment (NDT)approach to both analyze and treat neurologic disorders of postures and movement. manual facilitation and inhibition techniques are employed by the therapist to present the patient with "normal" sensory experiences. initiating a more functional motor response.neuropathic ulcerskin lesion caused by a decreased cutaneous sensation that disallows protective responses such as weight transfer; these ulcers are commonly associated with diabetes mellitusneuroplasticitythe ability of neurons in the brain to compensate for injury or diseasenom referencedtype of assessment based on a large number of participants to create a comparison group for the assessmentnormal developmental theorymodel asserting that therapy goals and objectives are designed to follow the progression of normal motor developmenta normative model of physical therapist professional educationguide for PT education programs to ensure that academic program meets quality and comprehensiveness established by members of the professionobjective examinationquantitative or qualitative or measurements taken by PTs by use of mechanical deviceobstructive lung diseasepathologic abnormality in airflow through the bronchial tubesopen kinetic chain exerciseexercise in which the end limb segment is freeosteoarthritiscondition characterized by degeneration of cartilage as a result of many yrs of useosteogenesis imperfectasevere bone impairment of genetic origin. affects formation of collagen during bone developement resulting in frequent fracturesosteoporosisdecreased mineralization of the bones caused by decreased production of new bone cells and increased resorption of boneoutcome measurestandardized instrument used to measure an individual's actual perceived limitations and participation restrictions and quality of life/health statusparaffin treatmentuse of a mixture of melted paraffin wax and mineral oil maintained at a specific temp to promote relaxation and pain relief and allow greater comfort during range of motion exercisesparaplegiaspinal cord damage and resultant loss of sensory or motor function affecting the lower trunk and legsparkinson diseaseprogressive condition caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter dopaminepassive range of motion (PROM)amount of movement at a joint that is obtained by the therapist's moving the segment without assistance from the patientper diemmethod of health care reimbursement; a set payment per dayperceptionability to integrate various simultaneous sensory inputs and to respond appropriatelypercutaneous coronary interventionprocess of mechanically dilating a blood vesselpervasive development disorder (PDI)group of disorders of neural development characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of unusual behaviors such as repeating actions and poor play skillsphysiatristphysicians specializing in physical medicinephysical therapistevaluate, treat, prevent disability, movement dysfunction, pain resulting from injury, disability, disease...etcphysical therapyevaluate, treat, prevent disability, movement dysfunction, pain resulting from injury, disability, disease...etcphysiotherapistsynonym for physical therapistphysiotherapysynonym for physical therapistplagiocephalydeformation of the skull during development caused by prolonged position in utero or in the first few months of lifeplan of caregoals, interventions, desired outcomes, and criteria for dischargepolicyplan designed to influence and determine decisions.postural drainagegravity through positioning and chest wall percussion to promote removal of excessive secretions from tracheobronchial treepractice actstate's official statement or doc of definition and regulation of a specific profession, setting down guidelines for those practicing the profession within its jurisdictionprenatal cocaine exposurefetal exposure to cocaine resulting from maternal cocaine use. hyper irritability, poor feeding patterns, high respiratory and heart rates, increased tremulousness, and irregular sleeping patternspresbycusisdecreased ability to perceive higher pitches and to distinguish between similar soundspressure ulcerskin lesion caused by ischemia of integument secondary to pressureprimary carelevel of health care delivered by a member of health care system who is responsible for majority of health care needs of individualprofessioncommitment to field, rep organizations, knowledge in specific area, social service, and recognized autonomyprofessional misconductviolation of the state statues that define competent professional practiceprognosisprediction of level of improvement and time necessary to reach that levelproliferative phasephase of wound healing that involves increased activity of fibroblasts, instigation of aggressive wound contraction, and apithelializationproprioceptive neuromuscular facilitationtechnique used to enhance movement and motor control, emphasizing proprioceptive stimuli but also using tactile, visual, and auditory stimulipulmonary function testassessment of the effectiveness of respiratory musculature and integrity of the airways and lung tissues to help classify the lung disease pattern as obstructive/restrictiverange of motion ROMmovement at jointROM exerciseexercise mobility of a jointreceptive aphasiadiminished ability to receive and interpret verbal or written communicationreconstruction aideaide responsible for providing physical reconstruction to persons injured in warregistrationprocess by which the state tracks regulated professionals by requiring names, addresses, and qualificationsregulationadmin issued to carry out intent of the lawresistance exerciseform of active movement in which some form of resistance is provided to increase muscular strength and enduranceresisted testtest allows therapist to determine general strength of muscle group and assess pain produced by muscle contractionrespirationprocess of exchanging oxygen and co2restrictive lung diseasepathologic reduction in volume of air in lungsrheumatoid arthritischronic inflammation of the jointsrigiditydisturbance of muscle tonerisk managementefforts made by organization to identify assess and minimize risk of harmsarcopenialoss of muscle mass associated with agingscar contractiondynamic movement of the edge of a scarscar contracturepermanent or relatively permanent lack of mobility of the scar tissue that results in functional and cosmetic impairmentscoliosislateral curvature of the spinescreeningprocedure to determine if there is need for further services of the PTsecondary careservices provided by referralsecondary conditioncondition that is potentially preventable and is direct or indirect consequence of inadequate attention to impairment or disabilitysensationability to receive critically examine and evaluate one's own behaviorsensory integrationtechnique based on theory that poor integration and use of snesory input prevent subsequent motor planningshort wave diathermyuse of electromagnetic energy to produce deep therapeutic heating effectsSOAP note1. subjective 2. objective 3. assessment 4. plan of caresoft tissue mobilizationvariety of hands on techniques, including massage and myofascial release, improve movement and decrease pain or swellingspecial testsdesigned for examination of specific joints to indicate presence or absence of a particular problemspina bifidacongenital incomplete closure of a vertebraspina bifida occultacongenital incomplete closure of vertebra not associated with disabilityspinal cord injury (SCI)damage to spinal cord that results in neurologic dysfunctionspinal muscular atrophygenetic disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness in infancy and progressive respiratory failurespirometerinstrument measuring various volumes and airflow ratessprainoverstretching of a joint ligament accompanied by tearingstandardized testingtype of formal test in which evaluation procedures remain the same when administered by different therapistsstandards of practice for PTidentifies conditions and performances essential for provision of high quality PTstatic balancebalance maintained while standing stillstatuteformal written enactment by legislative department of govstraintearing of muscle fibers caused by sudden contraction of muscle or excessive stretch to the musclestrengthamount of force produced during voluntary muscular contractionstroke/CVAneurologic problem arising from disruption of blood flowsubjective examinationinterview of the patient about extent and nature of injurysubscriberindividual who makes advance payment for somethingsystems approachintervention techniques used for neuromuscular conditionssystems reviewbrief examination to provide info about general health of the patienttarget heart rateheart rate during peak of period in aerobic trainingtask oriented approachintervention technique used for neuromuscular conditions that focuses on specific intended task and retraining using functional activitiestendinitisinflammation of a tendontendinopathydisorder of tendontendinosisdegeneration of tendontertiary careservice by specialists who are commonly employed in facilities that focus on particular conditionstests and measuresspecific procedures selected and performed to quantify physical and functional statustetraplegiaspinal cord damage resulting in loss of sensory/motor function affecting all limbsthermal agentagent used to modify temp of surrounding tissue to change blood flowtonetension exerted by muscletortcivil injury for which injured party can seek legal relief from courtstorticolliscondition when head and neck are bent to one sidetraining zoneindividual's ideal rangeTBSAtotal body surface areatraumatic brain injury (TBI)damage to brain causing neurologic dysfunctiontremoralternating contractions of opposing muscle groupsultrasoundtherapeutic application of high frequency sound waves penetrating through tissue and cause increase in tissue tempvancouver burn scar scarepigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and heightvenous insufficiencydeficiency or occlusion of blood flow through a veinventilationprocess of inspiration and expirationvertigosensation of spinning or whirling from lack of balancevicarious liabilityprinciple which one person may be held indirectly liable legally for acts of anothervision 2020autonomous practice, direct access, practitioner of choice, doctor of PT, evidence based practice and professionalismwell elderlyppl aged 65 or older who experience physical limitationswhirlpooltank of water used in hydrotherapy for immersing body part or entire bodywork-conditioning programintervention for person with work related injury. physical dysfunctionswork hardening programintervention for person with work related injury. behavioral and vocational managementdevelopmental milestone