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79 terms

misy160 ch4

STUDY
PLAY
desktop personal computers
electronic components and most storage devices are part of the system unit and other devices, such as the keyboard, mouse, and monitor, normally occupy space outside the system unit.
chassis
aka cases of system unit, made of metal or plastic and protects internal electronic components used to process data
system board
main circuit board of system unit
computer chip
small piece of semi-conducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched.
integrated circuit
is etched on a computer chip, contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current
system unit
case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data.
transistor
is contained on an integrated circuit, can act as an electronic switch that opens or closes the circuit for electrical charges
microprocessor
some comp and chip manufacturers use this term to refer to personal computer processor chip
CPU
interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer.
multi core processor
chip with 2 or more separate processors
control unit
component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
ALU
component of the processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
fetching
process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory
decoding
the process of translating instructions into signals the computer can execute
executing
process of carrying out commands
machine cycle
made up by 4 operations- fetching, decoding, executing and storing
pipelining
processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction
clock speed
pace of system clock is measured by number of ticks per second
registers
small high speed storage locations in a processor that temporarily hold data and instructions
system clock
small quartz crystal circuit processor relies on to control timing of all comp operations
clock cycle
each tick of system clock equates ____
one gigahertz (GHz)
equals 1 billion ticks of system clock per second
the faster the clock speed
the more instructions the processor can execute per second
core
Most high-performance PCs use some type of processor in the Intel ____ family.
intel
AMD is the leading manufacturer of ____-compatible processors, which have an internal design similar to Intel processors, perform the same functions, can be as powerful, but often are less expensive.
system on a chip
integrates the functions of a processor, memory, and a video card on a single chip.
heat sink
a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components such as a processor.
liquid cooling technology
uses a continuous flow of fluid(s), such as water and glycol, in a process that transfers the heated fluid away from the processor
memory
consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data (information).
stored program concept
role of memory to store both data and programs
RAM
most common type of volatile memory
memory module
small circuit board where RAM chips usually reside, being inserted into the motherboard.
memory slots on motherboard
hold the memory modules
DIMM
a type of memory module where the pins on opposite sides of circuit board dont connect and thus form 2 sets of contacts
Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) chips
are synchronized to system clock
Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM) chips are even faster than SDRAM chips because they
transfer data twice for each clock cycle
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) chips are another type of DRAM chips that are much faster than SDRAM chips because they
use pipeline techniques
SIMM (single inline memory module)
has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that connect together to form one set of contacts
RIMM (Rambus inline memory module)
houses RDRAM chips
8 GB and up
amount of RAM in basic application software such as word processing that home users use
L1 cache
built directly into a processor chip and usually has a very small capacity.
L2 cache
Current processors include advanced transfer cache, a type of ____ built directly on a processor chip
L3 cache
separate from the processor chip on motherboard
firmware
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information that is recorded when the chip is manufactured
microcode instructions
programmers use to program a PROM chip
flash memory
type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed, similar to EEPROM
adapter card
a circuit board that enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals
plug and play
supported by many of todays comps where the computer automatically can configure adapter cards like the one in the accompanying figure and other peripherals as users install them
peripheral
such as a keyboard or printer, is a device that connects to the system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer
video card
converts computer output into a video signal that travels through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen
ExpressCard slot
a special type of expansion slot that notebook and other mobile comps have at least one of
expresscard modules
next generation of PC cards. a removable flash memory device about one-half the size of a PC Card that adds memory, communications, and multimedia capabilities to mobile computers.
memory card
removable device that allows users to transfer data and information conveniently from mobile devices to their desktop computers
USB flash drive
flash memory device that plugs in a port like the one shown in the accompanying figure on a computer or portable device
USB
A(n) ____ drive like that in the accompanying figure fits into a port that is itself an interface that can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector.
USB hub
device that plugs in a USB port on the system unit like the one in the accompanying figure and contains multiple USB ports in which users plug cables from USB devices.
gender changer
device that enables users to join two connectors that are both female or both male.
USB 2.0
aka Hi-Speed USB
FireWire port
formerly reffered to as IEEE 1394 port
firewire hub
device that plugs in a FireWire port on the system unit like the one in the accompanying figure and contains multiple FireWire ports in which users plug cables from FireWire devices.
blue tooth technology
an alternative to IrDA that uses radio waves to transmit data between two devices
MIDI port
A special type of serial port that connects the system unit to a musical instrument, such as an electronic keyboard
synthesizer
which can be a peripheral or a chip, creates sound from digital instructions.
SCSI port
a special high-speed parallel port that allows users to attach peripherals such as disk drives and printers
IrDa port
For a wireless device to transmit signals via infrared light waves, both the computer and the device must have one of these
bus
Within the circuitry of a computer, each channel along which bits transfer, called a(n) ____, allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
bus width
aka size of bus determines number of bits that the comp can transmit at one time
Word size
the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time.
The wider the bus...
the fewer the number of transfer steps required and the faster the transfer of data
PCI bus
a high-speed expansion bus that connects higher speed devices
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)
a bus designed to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and video transmit
USB (universal serial bus) and FireWire bus
buses that eliminate the need to install cards in expansion slots
hard disk drives
installed in internal bays
expansion bus for PC
PC Card bus
bay
an opening inside the system unit in which additional equipment can be installed.
power supply
component of the system unit that converts the wall outlet AC power into the DC power a computer requires
adapter
Some external peripherals such as an external modem, speakers, or a tape drive have an AC ____, which is an external power supply
Preventive maintenance of your computer requires a few basic products, including
lint-free antistatic wipes and swabs, antistatic wristband, screen cleaning solution
first step in cleaning a computer
turn it off, unplug it, and unplug all cables from the ports