71 terms

Ch2 Macromolecules

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amino acid
monosaccharide
polysaccharide
lactose
milk sugar
disaccharide
phospholipid
main component of cell membranes
polyunsaturated fatty acid
saturated fatty acid
starch
storage polysaccharide of glucose in plants
sucrose
table sugar
unsaturated fatty acid
macromolecules
The critically important large molecules of life; carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.
polymer
Long chain like molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks (monomers) linked by covalent bonds.
monomer
The repeating units that serve as a building block of polymers.
enzymes
Specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They may be found floating in the cytoplasm or embedded in the membrane.
carbohydrates
macromolecules that serve as our primary source of energy; include simple sugars and polysaccharides
monosaccharides
may exist on their own or may serve as monomers that make up polysaccharides; include glucose, fructose, galactose
polysaccharides
Macromolecule polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monomers. Can serve as storage material and building material. Their function is determined by the sugar monomers involved and the way they are covalently bonded to each other.
glycogen
Heavily branched glucose polymers that allow us and other animals to store glucose in our liver and muscles for an emergency stash of energy that depletes rapidly. (It can not sustain an organism for long and must be replenished in about a day by eating.)
cellulose
Polysaccharide that is main component of strong plant cell walls. The most abundant organic material on Earth. It is made of glucose, but the bonds differ from starch and we can't break them down. This is why vegetables and fruit provide us with roughage to help us stay regular!
lipids
Macromolecules that include fats, phospholipids, waxes, and steroids.
fat
A macromolecule composed of glycerol and fatty acids. A form of stored energy. Many mobile organisms (like us) that have a greater need to store energy, have this.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which each carbon is attached to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms as possible. They tend to be solids at room temp.
unsaturated fatty acid
has one or more carbon double bonds, effectively reducing the amount of hydrogen in the fatty acid and introducing kinks which make it have more fluid properties.
phospholipids
Essential to cells, as they make up cell membranes. Similar to a fat molecule, but one of the glycerols hydroxyl group attaches to a phosphate, which attaches to another hydrophilic group. The hydrophilic phosphate groups ("heads") face outward, while the hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" face each other.
steroids
a class of lipid molecules which includes cholesterol, sex hormones, etc
cholesterol
A common component of animal cell membranes, and also the precursor from which other steroids like sex hormones are synthesized.
transport proteins
moves materials of a certain size, shape, and charge from one side of the membrane to the other
receptor proteins
hormones bind to these and bring about changes (a biochemical response) inside the cell
amino acid
Organic molecules containing both a carboxylic acid group and an amino group. The middle carbon is attached to a variable side chain (designated the R group) that determines the function of the molecule.
denaturation
When a protein unravels and loses its native shape, because of an change in its environment (like exposure to extreme temperatures, acidic or basic conditions, or harsh chemicals). Unfolded, the protein would not be able to function very well if at all.
nucleic acids
polymers of nucleotides; they work together to direct the activities of the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid
The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents. It contains the information and ultimately directs the activities of cells within an organism. A polymer of nucleotides, this molecule looks like a twisted ladder or double slinky .
ribonucleic acid
a polymer of nucleotides, this macromolecule is single-stranded and not as stable as its partner. It is required to help in carrying out instructions that are housed in the cell's DNA.
nucleotides
Consist of three parts: a phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar (a pentose), and a nitrogenous base.
adenine(A), guanine(G) and cytosine(C)
3 nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA.
thymine(T)
Nitrogenous base found only in DNA.
uracil(U)
Nitrogenous base found only in RNA.
double helix
The type of structure exhibited by a DNA molecule.
Macromolecules
Very large molecules, based on the element carbon, include carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, the building blocks of life
Amino acids
The building blocks, or monomers, of proteins, 20 different types exist, contain a middle carbon, an NH2 group, a COOH group, and a spot where they differ from other amino acids, the "R" group
Simple sugars
The smallest sugars, the building blocks of all carbohydrates, usually shaped like a hexagon, taste sweet, also called monosaccharides, includes glucose and fructose
Fatty acids
long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms that do not like water, may be straight or bent, energy-rich bonds, three of these combine with glycerol to form fats and oils
R group
The part of an amino acid that varies, may be big or small, charged or not charged, water-loving, or water-hating
enzymes
proteins that speed up the reactions in cells, these proteins have very specific shapes, they only attache to one particular molecule, reduce the energy needed for a reaction to occur
Primary structure
The order of amino acids in a protein, the amino acids laid out in a straight chain, before the chain starts to fold and twist, order of amino acids in a protein is determined by an organism's DNA. It determines the protein's structure and function.
Strong bonds
Bonds that link building blocks together, such as those between sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids, covalent
Defense Proteins
Proteins that fight disease, invaders, and predators, such as antibodies and venoms
Transport proteins
Proteins that move materials within your body and within your cells, such as hemoglobin or proteins in your cell membranes
Structural proteins
Proteins that give organisms their shape, such as collage which forms cartilage and keratin which forms hair and nails
Denatured
An uncoiled, or unraveled protein, the protein has lost its shape due to high temperatures or strong chemicals, its weak bonds have broken and the protein cannot perform its job, since it no longer "fits" with other molecules
Proteins
Chains of amino acids that fold into complex three-dimensional shapes
Carbohydrates
Sugar-based molecules whose main role is to supply energy. Some carbohydrates (cellulose and chitin) provide structure in plants or in fungi and arthropods
Polysaccharides
Hundreds of sugars linked together to store energy or to provide structure, includes starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin
Lipids
Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids, these molecules do not dissolve in water, function in long-term energy storage, cushioning, insulation, water-proofing, and communication, 9 Calories per gram
Saturated fats
Solids at room temperature, contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, their tails are straight, the unhealthy fats, often from animals, no double bonds exist between the carbon atoms in the fatty acid tails
Unsaturated fats
Liquids at room temperature, oils, contain fewer hydrogen atoms, their tails are bent, the healthy fats from plants, double bonds exist between some carbon atoms in the fatty acid tails
Foods that contain carbohydrate
fruits, vegetables, rice, bread, pasta, cereals, whole grain is always better
Foods that contain protein
meat, fish, dairy products, beans, nuts, chicken, pork
Foods that contain lipids
butter, full-fat dairy products, nuts, vegetable oils, meat
Body parts made of lipids
Fat, cell membranes
Body parts made of proteins
Hair, nails, muscle, cartilage - just about all of you
Benedicts
Indicator used to test for simple sugars and most disaccharides (not sucrose), changes from blue to orange in the presence of sugars, when heated
Iodine
Indicator used to test for starch, changes from yellow to blue/black when starch is present
Fructose
Simple sugar, very sweet, found in fruits
Glucose
The simple sugar that fuels all cells, sweet, C6H12O6, broken apart for immediate energy
Lactose
Double sugar, found in milk, sweet, how mammals transport sugars to their babies
Sucrose
Table sugar, a double sugar, sweet, how plants transport sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant body
Starch
Plant polysaccharide, how plants store their extra sugars, animals eat starch and break it apart for energy, a branched polysaccharide, not sweet
Cellulose
Structural polysaccharide in plants, straight chains of hundreds of sugars, stiff and rigid, forms the cell walls of plants, also called fiber, if we eat it, we cannot break it apart for energy
Glycogen
Animal polysaccharide, how animals store their extra sugars for later use, a branched polysaccharide, found in the liver and in muscle, broken apart when you need sugars for fuel