36 terms

Chapter 1:Affluent Society, Britain 1951-64

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What was the Bevanite Quarrel?
The split in the Labour Party when Aneurin Bevan resigned as Minister of Labour because of prescription charges. 💊💊💰
When was the Bevanite Quarrel?
In 1951
The Conservatives won in 1951 due to first past the post, define this.
First past the post is a voting system where the candidate with the most votes in each constituency wins a seat. So it is the number of constituencies which matter, not the number of votes.
Who became PM in 1951?
Churchill
What was the general opinion of Churchill?
He was viewed as a wartime leader and a warmonger; a tired force who would struggle in economic situations.
What happened to Churchill in 1953?
He suffered from a stroke which left him with speech impairments.
How did Churchill view himself?
As an international statesmen who should meet world leaders to avoid nuclear war. He also saw himself above party politics and persuaded liberals and non-Conservatives to oversee ministries. (Absenteeism)
Who was in charge during his absenteeism?
The acting PM Anthony Eden or the Chancellor of the Exchequer Rab Butler.
Why was there tension within the party
Eden, Butler and Macmillan knew that Eden was Churchill's heir causing rivalry; and Eden was impatient for Churchill to step down.
When did Eden become PM?
In 1955
By how much did Eden increase the Conservative majority?
From 17 to 60
Why was Eden a poor PM?
He had more experience in foreign policy and was not concerned with domestic affairs. He did not know much about economics.
Where did he try to move Macmillan?
From the Foreign Office to the Treasury, but Macmillan managed to delay until December.
What greatly damaged Eden's reputation?
Military Action in Suez, he was under attack from the press e.g. The Manchester Guardian and also accused of lying to the House of Commons.
How many Conservatives rebelled?
Nearly 40.
When did Macmillan succeed Eden?
1957
Why was his rival, Butler, popular with the people but not the party?
He introduced tax cuts before the 1955 election and it had to be reversed because the economy overheated.
Butler was also linked with appeasement; define this term.
It is a policy of making concessions (compromises) to avoid conflict.
What phrase was used to describe Butler?
The best Prime Minister the Conservatives never had.
In what election did 'Supermac' win 100 seats?
The 1959 election.
What was Post War Consensus?
After WWII there was a great deal of agreement between the main political parties on major issues. It was also known as Butskellism (Butler's name merged with Gaitskell)
What did the 1951 Conservative Manifesto promise in terms of housing?
Churchill was PM at the time. The Party promised to build 300,000 houses a year and replace the slums.
What act brought about the tripartite system?
The Butler Act 1944.
What three types of school emerged?
Grammar Schools (for the gifted)
Technical Schools (to learn a vocation)
Secondary Modern (basic)

[Tech schools were mainly under Eden, Churchill faced financial restraints)
Give an example of a social Act under Macmillan.
The Housing and Factory Act - improved living and working conditions.

The Clean Air Act 1956 - aimed to prevent smog.
Suggest why Attlee caused Labour to lose the 1951 election?
He was more of a wartime generation leader and was ageing, unable to modernise.
There was a rivalry between Bevan and Gaitskell. Who were the they?
Bevan: Minister of Health under Labour, helped create NHS, resigned over prescription charges.
(L)
Gaitskell: Chancellor of the Exchequer from 50-51, Party leader from 55, introduced prescription charges (R)
Bevan opposed unilateral nuclear disarmament? What was it and why did he not agree with it?
It was the policy of declaring abandonment of use and possession of nuclear weapons. Bevan viewed this as leaving the 'British Foreign Secretary Naked'
What did other Labour left wingers believe?
They supported the CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) and this cause some unpopularity.
Which trade union did Frank Cousins lead in 1956?
Transport (and)
General
Workers
Union
Why was there rivalry between cousins and Gaitskell?
Cousins led the unions to the Labour Left and they rallied against Gaitskell; they supported the CND.
Gaitskell put forward nationalisation in Clause IV. What is nationalisation?
State ownership of key industries.
Macmillan lost his status in the 1960's, what major event happened in July 1962?
The Night of the Long Knives; when Macmillan sacked one third of his cabinet. It was supposed to rejuvenate the government but weakened it.
What affair in 1963 caused the Conservative Party to seem unreliable.
The Profumo Affair which took place between the Defence Secretary, John Profumo, and a stripper, Christine Keeler. She was in a relationship with a Soviet spy called Ivanov and this raised security questions.
Why did Macmillan resign in 1963?
Due to a serious illness
Who replaced him?
Sir Alec Douglas Home
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