Chapter 7 APES


Terms in this set (...)

three factors that lead to an increase in human population growth
-thanks to our highly complex brain and tool-using capabilities, humans developed the ability to expand into diverse new habitats and different climate zones

-new emergence of early and modern agriculture allowed more people to be fed per unit of land area- thus increasing the carrying capacity of our population

-we have managed to put off reaching the limits of disease, food, water, and energy supplies on overall population growth
-we've used better sanitation and developed antibiotics and vaccines to help prevent and control infectious disease agents
-we've tapped into concentrated sources of energy- fossil fuels

these changes have caused births to exceed deaths
population change
calculated by subtracting the number of people leaving a population from the number of people entering a population
zero population growth (ZPG)
growth by birth and immigration is equal to decline by death and emigration
instead of births and deaths demographers use
the crude birth rate and the crude death rate
crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
about how many people are added to the world's population each day? each year?
how is the annual rate of population change calculated?
(birth rate- death rate)/ 10= annual rate of population change (%)
What three countries have the world's largest populations? Current populations?
United States-
The change in the growth rate of the human population from 1963 to 2005
About 78 million people were added to the human population in 2005- whereas in 1963, 69 million people were added
Rule of 70
used to describe a population's doubling time

equation: 70/ percentage growth rate = doubling time in years
How many years would it take the population of a country to double if it was growing at a rate of 2% per year
35 years
the number of births that occur to an individual women or in a population

two types of fertility rates affect a country's population size and growth rate
replacement-level fertility
the number of children a couple must bear in order to replace themselves

it is slightly higher than two children per couple (2.1 in developed countries and as high as 2.5 in some developing countries)- mostly because some female offspring die before reaching their reproductive years
the total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive years

in 2005 the average global TFR was 2.7 children per woman: 1.6 in developed countries (down from 2.5 in 1950) and 3.0 in developing countries (down from 6.5 in 1950)

although the decline in TFR in developing countries is impressive, this level of fertility is still far above the replacement level of 2.1
Explain why reaching replacement level fertility does not mean an immediate halt to population growth
this is because so many future parents are alive. If each of today's couples had an average of 2.1 children and their children also had 2.1 children, the world's population would continue to grow for 50 years or more (assuming that death rates do not rise)
Explain the changes in US fertility rates
population growth in the United States has slowed but is not close to leveling off

the population of the United States grew from 76 million in 1900 to 296 million in 2005

the peak of the baby boom took place in 1957, after WW2 in which the average TRF was 3.7

since then, it has generally declined to remain at or below replacement level since 1972

the decline in the average TRF has lead the population growth of the United States to slow, yet it is still the most rapidly growing of all developed nations in the world and is not close to leveling off
How is the population intended to rise
from around 296 million in 2005 to 457 million in 2050 and 571 million in 2100
ten factors that affect birth and fertility rates
the importance of children as part of the labor force

cost of raising and educating children

the availability of private and public pension systems- pensions reduce the parent's need to have many children to support them into older age

urbanization-people in urban areas usually have better access to family planning services and thus, tend to have fewer children than those living in rural areas, where children are often required to perform essential tasks

the educational and employment opportunities available to women- TFRs tend to be low when women have access to education and paid employment outside of the home

infant mortality rate

average age of marriage- (or more precisely, the average age in which women have their first child)

availability of legal abortions

the availability of reliable birth control methods

religious beliefs. traditions, and cultural norms
factors affecting death rates
the five reasons that the world's death rate has declined over the past 100 years-

increased food supplies
better nutrition
advances in medicine
improved sanitation and personal hygiene
safer water supplies
two indicators of the overall health within a country
life expectancy and infant mortality
life expectancy
the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
infant mortality
the number of babies of every 1,000 that are born who die before their first birthday
a high infant mortality rate usually indicates...
insufficient nutrition (undernutrition)

poor nutrition (malnutrition)

a high incidence of infectious disease (usually from contaminated drinking water ad weakened disease resistance from undernutrition and malnutrition)
infant mortality
probably the single most important measure of a society's quality of life
Why is the US infant mortality higher than it should be?
inadequate health care for women during pregnancy and for their babies after birth

drug addiction among pregnant women

a high birth rate among teenagers
Discuss the importance of US immigration
immigrants pay taxes, take many low-paying jobs that Americans shun, open businesses and create jobs

after 2020, higher immigration levels will be needed to supply enough workers as baby boomers retire

they play an important role in cultural diversity
what is the age structure of a population ?
the number of people in young, middle, and older age groups determines how fast a population is able to grow

pre-reproductive- (0-14 years)
reproductive (15-44)
post-reproductive (45 and older)
explain the importance of the number of people under the age of 15 on a country's population growth
places with many people under age 15 has a powerful built-in momentum to increase its population size unless death rates rise sharply

the number of births rises even if women have only one or two children because a large number of girls will soon be moving into their reproductive years
Using age structure to make projection.... Explain the effects of the baby boom generation
between 1946 and 1964, the United States had a baby boom that added 79 million people to its population

over time, this group looks like a bulge moving up through the country's age structure

baby boomers now represent nearly half of all adult Americans- as a result, they dominate the population's needs for goods and services

they are also playing an important role in what laws are passed and who gets elected

according to some analysts, the retirement of baby boomers is likely to create a shortage of workers in the United States unless immigrant workers replace some of them

retired baby-boomers are likely to use some of their political clout to force the smaller number of people in the baby-bust generation that followed them to pay higher income, health-care and social security taxes
reasons, on the other hand, that members of the baby-bust generation have it easier than those in the baby-boom generation
there is fewer people competing for educational opportunities, jobs, and services

also, labor shortages may drive up wages, at least for job requiring educational or technical training beyond the high school level
what are the effects on a nation of population decline
rapid population decline can lead to long-lasting economic and social problems

if population decline is gradual its harmful effects can be managed

rapid population decline can cause a country to experience a "baby bust" or "birth dearth" in which there is a sharp rise in the projection of older people

old people in turn consume an increasingly larger share of medical care, social security funds, and other costly public services funded by an ever smaller number of working taxpayers

such countries can also face labor shortages, unless they rely more heavily on automation or immigration of foreign workers
discuss the effects of the AIDS tragedy
a large number of deaths from AIDS disrupts a country's social and economic structure by removing large numbers of young adults from its age structure

unlike hunger and malnutrition which kills mostly infants and small children, AIDS kills many young adults

this change in the young-adult structure produces a sharp drop in average life expectancy

second, it leads to a loss of a country's most productive young adult workers and trained personal such as farmers, scientists, engineers, teachers, and government, business, and health-care workers

as a result, the number of productive adults available to support the young and the elderly and to grow food and provide essential services declines sharply
combating the aids epidemic
analysts have called for the international community- especially developed countries- to develop and fund a massive program to help countries ravaged by AIDS in Africa and elsewhere

this program would have two major goals

first, it would reduce the spread of HIV through a combination of improved education and health care

second, it would provide financial assistance for education and health care as well as volunteer teacher and health-care and social workers to help compensate for the missing young-adult generation
demographic transition
as countries become industrialized, their death rates and then their birth rates decline

=the transition takes place in four distinct stages
explain the four stages of demographic transition
preindustrial -birth and death rate are equal

transitional - the birth rate remains high, while the death rate declines rapidly

industrial- the birth and death rate are beginning to level off

post industrial - the birth and death rate become equal - sometimes the death rate begins to exceed the birth rate
stage 2 of demographic transition - the transitional stage
the demographic trap

this is now happening as death rates rise in a number of developing countries, especially in Africa

countries being ravaged by AIDS often fall back to stage 1
demographic trap
rapid population growth in many developing countries may overstep economic growth and overwhelm some local life-support systems
family planning
provides educational and clinical services that help couples chose how many children to have and when to have them
empowering women
women tend to have fewer children if they are educated, hold a paying job outside the home, and do not have their human rights suppressed
the top three solutions to population growth are
1) investing in family planning
2) reducing poverty
3) elevating the status of women
the 8 goals of the united Nations population plan
1) provide universal access to family planning services and reproductive health care

2) improve health care for infants, children and pregnant women

3) develop and implement national population policies

4) improve the status of women and expand educational and job opportunities for young women

5) provide more education, especially for girls and women

6) increase the involvement of men in child-rearing responsibilities and family planning

7) sharply reduce poverty

8) sharply reduce unsustainable patterns of production and consumption
India faces a number of already serious poverty, malnutrition, and environmental problems that could worsen as its population continues to grow rapidly

by global standards, one of every four people in India is poor

nearly one half of people are unemployed or can find only temporary work

40% of the population and over half of its children suffer malnutrition - mostly because of poverty

soil erosion, water logging, salinization, and deforestation all play a role in its environmental degradation
to achieve a sharp drop in fertility, China implemented the world's most extensive, intrusive, and strict population control program

-couples are strongly urged to marry later and have no more than one child
- those who pledge to have no more than one child will receive extra food, larger pensions, better housing, free medical care, salary bonuses, free school tuition for that one child, and preferential treatment in employment when their child enters the job market

-couples who break the pledge lose these benefits
-the government provides couples with free sterilization, contraceptives, and abortion

-in china, as in india, there is a strong preference for a male child due to the lack of a real social security system

many pregnant have ultrasounds done to confirm the gender of their fetus and have abortions performed if the gender is female

thus, leading to a gender imbalance
urban areas
cities, high populations in condensed areas
urban areas are growing rapidly
people move to urban areas because of a

search for jobs, a better life entertainment and freedom from religious, racial, and political conflicts
people are pushed from urban areas because
poverty, lack of land to grow food, declining agricultural jobs, famine and war
also known as meagalopolises

emerge when urban areas grow and sprawl outwards
what are the four phases of US population shift?
people migrated from rural areas to large central cities

many people migrated from large central cities to suburbs and smaller cities

many people migrated from the north and east to the south and west

some people have migrated from urban and suburban areas back to rural areas
- this leads to the formation of exurbs, vast sprawling areas that have no connection to cities and no centers
urban sprawl
where land is ample and affordable, urban areas tend to sprawl outward, swallowing up the surrounding countryside
problems with urban sprawl
growth of low-density development on the edges of cities and towns gobbles up the surrounding countryside - frequently prime farmland or forests- and increases dependence on cars
advantages of urbanization?
economic- cities are centers of economic development, education, technological developments and jobs

health- many urban residents live longer and have lower infant mortality/ fertility rates
disadvantages of urbanization
cities are rarely self sustaining- they threaten biodiversity, lack trees, grow little of their own food, concentrate pollutants and noise

spread infectious diseases, and are centers of poverty, crime, and terrorism
discuss the difficulties faced by the urban poor in developing countries
air and water pollution

solid/ hazardous wastes

pollutions produces in smaller areas- cannot be easily dispersed or diluted

spread of infectious diseases
if a city cannot grow outward
it must grow vertically

(upward and downward- below ground)
dispersed cities
found in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia where ample land is often available for outward expansion

produced through a combination of cheap gasoline, plentiful land, and a network of highways
each year Americans drive as far as
advantages of motor vehicles
they provide personal benefits, and help fuel economies-

much of the world's economy is built on producing motor vehicles and supplying roads, services and repairs for them
disadvantages of motor vehicles
they kill many people

pollute the air

promote urban sprawl

lead to time and gas wasting traffic jams
ways in which we can reduce automobile use
mass transit rail systems in urban areas
bus systems in urban areas
rapid rail systems between urban areas

although it would be politically unpopular, we could reduce automobile use by making users pay for their harmful effects
-a user-pays approach based on honest environmental accounting
alternatives to the car
the government could reduce taxes on income and wages to offset the increased taxes on gasoline, thereby making this tax shift more politically possible

raise parking fees and charge tolls on roads, tunnels and bridges- especially during peak traffic times
smart growth
emerging as a means to encourage more environmentally sustainable development that requires less dependence on cars, controls and directs sprawl, and reduces wasteful resource use

it recognizes that urban growth will occur

at the same time, it uses zoning laws and other tools to channel growth into areas where it can cause less harm, discourage sprawl, protect environmentally sensitive and important lands and waterways, and develop more environmentally sustainable urban areas and neighborhoods that are more enjoyable places to live
principles of new urbanism
walkability- with most things being locate within a ten minute walk from one another

mixed-use-and-diversity- seeks a mix of pedestrian-friendly shops, offices, apartments, and homes, and people of different ages, classes, cultures, and races

quality urban design emphasizes beauty, aesthetics, and architectural diversity

environmental sustainability based on development with minimal environmental impact

smart transportation in which high-quality trains connect neighborhoods, towns, and cities
allows people to walk, bike, or take mass transit for most of their travel

it recycles and reuses most of its wastes, grows much of its own food and protects biodiversity by preserving surrounding land
goals of an ecocity
preventing pollution and reducing waste

using energy and matter resources efficiently

recycling, reusing, and composting at least 60% of all municipal solid wastes

using solar and other locally available, renewable energy resources

protecting and encouraging biodiversity by preserving surrounding local land
What makes Curitiba, Brazil one of the most sustainable cities in the world?
bike paths
cars banned for 49 blocks from the downtown area
pedestrian walkway focus
less reliance on automobiles- thus, less air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and traffic congestion
recycles roughly 70% of its paper and 30% of its metal, glass and plastic
old buses
the poor receive free medical, dental and child care