101 terms

Bio 108 Final-Yates

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics is called _____.
natural selection
Evidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by showing that __________.
closely related organisms have more similar DNA and proteins
Which of the following is the study of the geographic distribution of species on Earth?
a.comparative embryology
b. paleontology
c. biogeography
d. microevolution
e. comparative anatomy
c. biogeography
Which one of the following statements most closely agrees with the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, as put forth by Darwin?
a. Only the best-adapted organisms will survive.
b. Organisms better adapted to their immediate environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
c. Humans arose from chimpanzees.
d. Organisms deliberately evolve the structures they need to survive.
e. Organisms mutate under unfavorable conditions to become better adapted.
b. Organisms better adapted to their immediate environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Which of the following is a requirement for natural selection?
a. variation in individuals
b. greater numbers of offspring from those that do not survive
c. a long period of time
d. low numbers of individuals
e. nonheritable traits
variation in individuals
Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics (for instance, penicillin) for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
strains of microorganisms that are resistant to these drugs will increase
A population is __________.
a group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
While on the Beagle, Darwin was influenced by a book by Charles Lyell that suggested that Earth was ______ and sculpted by geologic processes that ______ today.
old . . . continue
Animals that possess homologous structures probably __________.
evolved from the same ancestor
The approach to evolution that involves the study of similar structures that appear during the development of different organisms is known as the study of _____.
comparative embryology
What do we call scientists who study fossils?
paleontologists
Homology is evidence of ______.
common ancestry
"Natural selection" and "evolution" are two terms that are sometimes confused, even by freshman biology students. What is the relation between natural selection and evolution?
Natural selection is one of several mechanisms of evolution.
There is a group of small fish living in a lake with a sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown, but about 10% are mottled. These fish are normally prey for large birds that live on the shore. A construction company dumps a load of gravel in the bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance. Which of these statements presents the most accurate prediction?
a. The ratios will not change.
b. The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.
c. There is no way to guess the result.
d. In two generations, all the fish will be mottled.
e. As the mottled fish are eaten, more will be produced to fill the gap.
b. The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.
Which of the following is not a requirement of natural selection?
a. differential reproductive success
b. genetic variation
c. catastrophic events
d. overproduction of offspring
e. inheritance
c. catastrophic events
The original source of all genetic variation is _____.
mutation
Which of the following is a population?
a. you and all of the termites infesting your house
b the termites infesting your house
c. all organisms living in your house
d. all of the termites that have ever lived
e. the termites infesting your house along with the microorganisms living in their guts
b. the termites infesting your house
The smallest unit of evolution is the ______.
population
Which of the following reproductive barriers actually prevents individuals of different species from mating with each other?
a. gametic isolation
b. behavioral isolation
c. hybrid sterility
d. hybrid breakdown
e. hybrid inviability
b. behavioral isolation
Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
a. One species of flower grows in forested areas, another in meadows.
b. One species of frog mates in April; another mates in May.
c. Two pheasant species perform different courtship dances.
d. Two fruit flies of different species produce sterile offspring.
e. The sperm of a marine worm penetrate eggs of the same species only.
d. Two fruit flies of different species produce sterile offspring.
The oldest fossils have been dated to be approximately _____ years old.
3.5 billion
Which one of the following is the correct presentation of a species name?
Homo erectus (in italics)
What do phylogenetic trees represent?
the evolutionary relationships among organisms
In some zoos, rare crosses between a male lion and a female tiger have produced hybrid offspring called ligers. Male ligers are sterile but some female ligers are fertile. In the wild, lion and tiger ranges do not naturally overlap, making such a cross unlikely. Furthermore, the solitary behavior of tigers and the social organizations of lions create behavioral differences.
Applying the biological species concept, the production of ligers reveals that ______.
tigers and lions are separate species
The natural differences in the ranges of wild tigers and lions is an example of ______.
a pre-zygotic barrier
The production of sterile male ligers is an example of ______.
a post-zygotic barrier
On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?
being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species that lived side by side in parts of their ranges. However, recent books show them as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Apparently, the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler __________.
successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Two species of water lilies in the same pond do not interbreed because one blooms at night and the other during the day. The reproductive barrier between them is an example of _____.
temporal isolation
When two frog species, Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica, mate, the offspring die early in embryonic development. This is an example of ______.
reduced hybrid viability
Three species of frogs—Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica— all mate in the same ponds, but they pair off correctly because they have different calls. This is a specific example of a _____ barrier, called _____.
prezygotic barrier ... behavioral isolation
Which of these is an example of temporal isolation?
a. One species is nocturnal, and the other species is diurnal (active during the day).
b. One is a type of primate; the other is a type of marsupial.
c. The average weight of the individuals in one species is 100 pounds; in the other species, the average is 640 pounds.
d. One species cannot dance; the other only mates with species that can dance properly.
e. One species is found only in New York, the other only in London.
a. One species is nocturnal, and the other species is diurnal (active during the day).
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.
a pre-zygotic barrier
Two animals are considered members of different species if they __________.
cannot interbreed
The type of reproductive barrier that occurs when two species mate but produce sterile hybrids is referred to as ______.
a post-zygotic barrier
Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
a. One Ceanothus shrub lives on acid soil, another on basic soil.
b. Mallard and pintail ducks mate at different times of the year.
c. Two species of leopard frogs have different mating calls.
d. Pollen of one kind of tobacco cannot fertilize another kind.
e. The hybrid offspring of two species of jimsonweeds always die before reproducing.
e. The hybrid offspring of two species of jimsonweeds always die before reproducing.
A biologist spends her summer break collecting frogs from a remote jungle in Peru. She discovers two distinct color forms that could be variants of a single species or two different species. What would be the most direct test of their species status under the biological species concept?
a. Compare the color patterns of the two groups. If they are distinct enough, the two forms belong to different species.
b. Observe mating in the natural environment of the two groups. If the two forms do not mate with each other, they are different species.
c. Compare the habitat use of the two groups. If they use different habitats, they must be different species.
d. Compare the DNA of the two groups. If their genes are different, they must be different species.
b. Observe mating in the natural environment of the two groups. If the two forms do not mate with each other, they are different species.
In _____ isolation, it is physically impossible for two species to mate with each other, often because their genitalia do not fit together properly.
mechanical
Eastern and western spotted skunks breed at different times of the year. Therefore, they are prevented from interbreeding by _____ isolation.
temporal
The process of speciation starts with a single species. It often involves the following steps: (1) two populations become physically separated from one another by a barrier to dispersal and stop exchanging genes; (2) the populations experience independent evolutionary changes; (3) changes in one or both populations result in development of reproductive isolating mechanisms that prevent interbreeding; further changes in geography may bring the groups back into contact. When do you officially have two separate species?
a. step 1
b. step 2
c. step 3
c. step 3
Earthquakes are the result of ______.
the movement of continental plates against one another
What name is given to the single supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic?
Pangaea
xamine the evolutionary relationships represented in the following figure. Based upon this diagram, the two most closely related species are ______.
Felis Catus (domestic cat)-Felis-Felidae-Carnivora
Mephitis mephitis(striped Skunk)-mephitis-Mustelidae-Carnivora
Lutra lutra (European otter)-Lutra-Mustelidae-Carnivora
Canis familiaris (domestic dog)-Canis-Canidae-Carnivora
Canis lupis (wolf)-Canis-Canidae-Carnivora
the domestic dog and the wolf
An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
a. How does the uneven heating of Earth's surface cause the movement of air and water masses?
b. How does caffeine affect the transmission of nerve impulses in humans?
c. How do genes specify protein construction?
d. How are different species of fish related (in an evolutionary sense) to each other?
e. How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?
e. How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?
Which of these would be considered a biotic component of your environment?
a. temperature
b. rocks
c. oxygen
d. water
e. your friend
e. your friend
Which of these is a population?
a. you
b. you, all of the prokaryotes living in and on you, and the clothes you are wearing
c. you and all of the prokaryotes living in and on you
d. all of the people living in your state
e. a tropical rain forest
d. all of the people living in your state
The specific place in which an organism lives is its _____.
Habitat
What is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all surface terrestrial and shallow water ecosystems?
sunlight
Which of the following is an example of a biome that is transitional between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems?
a. river
b. wetland
c. pond
d. lake
e. stream
b. wetland
Which of the following are key factors for determining the biome of a specific region?
a. temperature
b. nitrogen cycle
c. rainfall
d. both temperature and rainfall
e. tropical rain forests
d. both temperature and rainfall
The dominant greenhouse gas is _____.
Carbon Dioxide
Which of these is a community?
a. all of the people living in your neighborhood
b. all of the nut grass (considered a weed) in my backyard
c. all of the organisms living in your home
d. all of the students in your class
e. all of the Staphlococcus aureus (a species of bacteria) living on your skin
c. all of the organisms living in your home
A graduate student is studying the influence of territory size on reproductive success in northern shrike. Which hierarchical level is she studying?
population ecology
Which of the following is abiotic?
a. an animal
b. a rock
c. a plant
d. a protist
e. a fungus
b. a rock
Which of the following is a behavioral response to environmental variability?
a. growing to a larger size
b. acclimation
c. migrating to a different location
d. growing a heavier coat of fur
e. evolutionary adaptation
c. migrating to a different location
Salmon eggs hatch in freshwater streams and, during the first year of their life, the young salmon migrate up to 1,000 km to the ocean. They spend varying amounts of time in the ocean (ranging up to five years), where they feed and grow, rapidly acquiring more than 95% of their biomass during this period. During the summer of their maturing year, they begin the long journey back to their home streams where they spawn. Although it is still uncertain how salmon navigate back to their spawning grounds, current hypotheses suggest that they have a highly developed sense of smell. At the spawning grounds, females use their tails to form a hollow cavity where they lay up to 8,000 eggs. The male fertilizes the eggs, and both adults typically die soon thereafter.
The physiological response that allows salmon to survive in fresh water, then in salt water, and then fresh water again is an example of ______.
acclimation
At different times in their lives, salmon can be found in all of the following except ______.
a. marine biome
b. a chaparral
c. an estuary
d. a freshwater biome
e. the pelagic realm
b. a chaparral
Which of these biomes is one of the most biologically productive of all biomes?
a. estuaries
b. temperate grasslands
c. coniferous forests
d. desert
e. open oceans
a. estuaries
The goal of developing, managing, and conserving Earth's resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs is known as _____.
sustainability
With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?
when it is raining, or is about to rain
What are estuaries?
regions where fresh water and salt water mix
The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.
CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth
Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?
a. turning off lights
b. eating more vegetables and less meat
c. eating more beef and less chicken
d. reusing or recycling items
e. walking instead of driving
c. eating more beef and less chicken
The definition of your carbon footprint is __________.
the amount of greenhouse gas emitted as a result of your actions
To figure out the human population density of your community, you would need to know the number of people living there and __________.
the size of the area in which they live
An example of population density is __________.
a. the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-milliliter solution within a glass flask
b. the total number of sturgeon per cubic meter in San Francisco Bay and in Tomales Bay
c. 100 organisms (barnacles, mussels, and sea stars) in a 25-square-meter tide pool
d. the total dry weight of trout in a lake
e. 255 dogfish sharks
a. the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-milliliter solution within a glass flask
A population is defined as __________.
a group of individuals of a single species that occupies the same general area
The single greatest current cause of population decline is __________.
habitat destruction
A non-native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and causes environmental or economic damage is called a(n) _____.
invasive species
Michigan's Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This "harmonious" pattern continued for at least 20 years.
In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

What most likely happened when the wolves first arrived on the island?
a. The wolf population was at its carrying capacity.
b. The moose population increased exponentially.
c. The wolf population decreased because of the introduction of a virus.
d. The wolf population increased exponentially.
e. The moose population crashed because of the introduction of a predator.
d. The wolf population increased exponentially.
The virus introduced to the island in 1982 that reduced the wolf population is an example of a(n) ______.
density-dependent factor
The harsh winter that led to the death of many moose in 1996 is an example of a(n) ______.
density-independent factor
During a one-year study, a graduate student attempted to count the wolves and moose on the island. He estimated that there were 950 moose and 120 wolves. How many organisms, populations, and species were included in this study?
organisms = 1,070; populations = 2; species = 2
In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the population's growth curve most closely resemble?
S
In an equilibrium population (at its carrying capacity), thousands of eggs and hundreds of tadpoles are produced by a single pair of frogs. On average, about how many offspring per pair will live to reproduce the next year?
2
The species most at risk of extinction due to habitat destruction are those __________.
with small, limited geographic ranges
The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that ______.
are in danger of extinction
Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by ______.
a. displacing native species
b. reducing biodiversity
c. preying upon native species
d. competing with native species for resources
e. doing all of the above
e. doing all of the above
Throughout most of human history, human population size _____.
grew very slowly
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the Earth's carrying capacity for humans?
a. The human population has already exceeded its carrying capacity.
b. The carrying capacity for humans is smaller now than it was a thousand years ago.
c. The human population is still a long way from carrying capacity.
d. When it comes to humans, the concept of carrying capacity is irrelevant.
e. Our technology has allowed us to keep increasing carrying capacity.
e. Our technology has allowed us to keep increasing carrying capacity.
Age structures are helpful for predicting __________.
a population's future growth
According to the principle of interspecific competition, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
ecological niche
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The shrew occupies the trophic level(s) of __________.
secondary and tertiary consumers
Which of the following describes the number of different species in the community?
a. ecological succession
b. species diversity
c. species richness
d. keystone species
e. relative abundance
c. species richness
What type of population interaction benefits neither population?
competition
Flounder look like the sea floor. This is an example of _____.
cryptic coloration
A tick has what type of relationship with a dog?
parasitic
A lichen is actually composed of two organisms: a fungus and an alga. They depend on each other for survival. The most specific term that describes their relationship is _____.
mutualism
Why does biological magnification occur?
Although the amount of organic material decreases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin remains the same.
Herbivores are _____.
primary consumers
Which of the following is a producer?
a. poison ivy
b. detritivores
c. lions
d. humans
e. shrimp
a. poison ivy
The biggest difference between the flow of energy and the flow of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem is that __________.
nutrients are recycled, but energy is not
Why do toxins accumulate at such high levels in carnivores?
The biomass at any given trophic level is accumulated from a much larger toxin-containing biomass ingested from the level below.
The bee fly resembles a honeybee, but the bee fly has no stinger. This is an example of _____.
mimicry
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic organism belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These eukaryotic organisms are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito when it feeds on human blood. Within humans, the Plasmodium spp. destroy red blood cells and, without effective treatment, serious infections can lead to death. Currently, more than 400 million people are afflicted with malaria and between 1 to 3 million people die from it each year. Historically, a chemical compound called quinine has been used in developing effective drugs against malaria. In its natural environment, quinine is produced by certain trees native to South America. This chemical is synthesized in the outer layer of tree trunks and acts as an herbivore deterrent.

Based on the relationship between Plasmodium spp. and humans, these organisms would be considered ______.
parasites
Humans, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium together would be considered a(n) ______.
community
Despite being used for many years, quinine-based drugs have not led to the eradication of malaria and currently there are Plasmodia that are resistant to the compound. Which of the following were likely important in the development of this resistance to quinine?
natural selection
Which of the following is an example of mimicry?
a. The mottled pattern on a fish looks like dead leaves on the bottom of a pond.
b. An insect's bright colors warn a predator that it tastes bad.
c. Two species of mice live in the same area and eat the same kinds of seeds.
d. Both kangaroo rats and jackrabbits hop erratically when escaping from predators.
e. A harmless frog resembles a poisonous frog.
e. A harmless frog resembles a poisonous frog.
Maintaining biodiversity on Earth is important because __________.
changes that underlie a loss of biodiversity may also threaten the human population
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The snail occupies the trophic level(s) of __________.
a primary consumer
Sustainable development __________.
focuses on the long-term prosperity of humans and the biosphere