What are the 4 types of joints?
1. Fibrous Joints
2. Cartilaginous Joints
3. Synovial Joints
4. Bony Joints
-Bones are fused together by collagen fibers
-Fibers are short, little no movement
-3 kinds of fibrous joints
What are sutures?
-Immobile or slightly moveable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones if the skull to each other
-only found in the skull
What are the classifications of sutures?
1. Serrate-wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly lock with each other by their serrated margins
2. Lap (squamous)- occur where 2 bones have overlapping edges, relatively smooth
3. Plane (butt)-occur where 2 bones have straight nonoverlapping edges. The 2 bones just overlap each other.
Give an example of serrate, lap, and plane sutures.
1. Serrate-coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures
2. Lap (squamous)-squamous suture between parietal and temporal lobe
3. Plane (butt)- suture between palantine process and maxillae in roof of mouth
What are Gomphoses?
-attachment of a tooth to a socket
-tooth held in place by a fibrous peridontal ligament, which consists of collagen fibers that extends from the bone matrix of jaw into dental tissue
What are Syndesmoses?
-fibrous joint at which 2 bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers.
-separation between the bones and length give more mobility
-ex: shafts of radius and ulna, joined by broad fibrous interosseous membrane; especially moveable; allows supination and pronation
-formed by either fibrous or cartilaginous joints
-old age: parietal bones fuse
-immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become a single bone
What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
1. Synchondrosis: bones bound by hyaline cartilage
2. Symphysis: bones bound by fibrocartilage
What are examples of Synchondrosis and Symphysis?
1. Sychondrosis-1st rib to sternum, epiphyseal plate
2. Symphysis- Pubic Symphysis, intervertebral discs`
What are accessory structures associated with synovial joints?
3. Bursa-saclike extension of a joint capsule that extends between nearby structures, allowing them to slide more easily past each other
What are Tendon Sheaths?
-layer of membrane around a tendons
-allows tendon to move
-elongated cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane
What are the functions of muscles?
-movement of body parts and organ contents-breathing, blood circulation, feeding
-maintain posture and prevent unwanted movement
-communication-speech, expressions and writing
-control of openings and passageways
-body heat production; 85% of ones body heat; glycemic control
Connective Tissue Components from Deep to Superficial
-Endomysium- thin sleeve of loose connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber. Creates room for blood capillaries and nerve fibers.
-Perimysium- thicker connective tissue sheath that wraps muscle fibers together in bundles called fascicles
-Epimysium- fibrous sheath that surrounds entire muscle
-Fascia- sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and subcutaneous tissue
Red Muscle Fibers
-less powerful, fatigue resistant
-high myoglobin content
-high oxygen content
-lots of mitochondria
-lots of blood capillaries
White Muscle Fibers
-low in oxygen supply
-high power output, fatigues quickly
-low myoglobin content
-few blood capillaries
What do the arrangement of fascicles affect?
1. Power-depends on the # of fibers connected to the tendons
2. Range of motion-the desire to which a joint can move; muscle fibers contract to about 70% of their resting length; the longer the muscle fibers the > ROM
-Fusiform-thick in the middle and tapered at the end, strong;biceps brachii
-Parallel-uniform width and parallel fascicles; rectus abdominus; satorious of thigh
-Convergent (Triangular)-fan shaped; pectoralis major
-Unipennate-all fascicles approach tendon from one side
-Bipennate- fascicles approach tendon from both sides
-Multipennate-shaped like a bunch of feathers w/quills converging on single point
-Circular (sphincters)-rings around certain body openings
Functional Groups of Muscles
1. Agonist-the prime mover, the muscle that produces the most force during a particular joint action
2. Antagonist- a muscle that opposes the prime mover; prevents excessive movement
3. Antagonistic Pairs- produces opposite effects on a joints, such as flexion and extension
4. Synergist- a muscle that aids that prime mover
4. Fixator- a muscle that prevents a bone from moving during joint action
What are the 3 things involved in lever systems?
1. Resistance (load)-what you are moving
2. Fulcrum-where movement occurs (joints)
3. Effort-causes movement (muscle)
What are 1st Class levers?
-has fulcrum in middle (EFR)
-resistance and effort arm are same length
-rocking of the foot on tibia
-Atlanto-occipital joints-muscles of the back of neck pull down on occipital bone and oppose the tendency of head to tip forward
What are 2nd Class levers?
-has resistance in middle (FRE)
-sitting in chair raising one knee up
What is Mechanical Advantage?
-Ratio of its output force to input force
-If MA>1 lever produces more force less speed/distance
-If MA<1 lever has more speed/distance less force
What are 3rd Class levers?
-has effort in midde (REF)
-Resistance arm is longer that fulcrum
-Most musculoskeletal levers
-Forearm when you flex elbow
What are the 6 types of Synovial Joints?
1. Ball and Socket Joint
2. Pivot Joint
3. Saddle Joint
4. Condylar (ellipisoid) joint
5. Plane (gliding) joint
6. Hinge Joint
-shoulder and hip joints
-has smooth hemispherical head that fits into cuplike socket
-oval convex surface on one bone that fits into another complementary shaped depression
-radiocarpal joint of wrist and metacarpophelangeal joint
-capable of movement in two planes
-both bones have saddle shaped surfaces, concave in one direction and convex in other
-bone surfaces are flat or only slightly concave or convex
-found between bones of wrist and tarsal bones of ankles
-slightly complex movements
-moving freely in one plane with very little movement in another