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Binds and inhibits caudal
Bicoid deficient mutant: Double tail
Bicoid "rescue" expts: wherever inserted gives rise to "head" region


Binds and inhibits hunchback
nanos deficient mutant: no abdomen
anchored by staufen and oskar


both anterior and posterior
Torso is a RTK.... represses groucho
tailless and huckbein mRNA in association with torso
torso deficient mutant: no telson and acron


activates torso which represses Groucho


inhibited by torso
represses tailless and hucklebein


inhibited by bicoid (binds to the 3' UTR of caudal)


ubiqiotous mRNA
deadenylation in posterior (so only expressed in anterior)

Gap genes

muntants missing large regions

pair rule genes

mutants missing every other segment

segment polarity genes

missing half of each segment

mutual rerpression

both inhibit eachother in synctium blastoderm
establishes polarity which gives rise to segments because of the morphogen gradients made

unilateral repression

hunchback does not directly inhibit krupel but ultimatley does

major primary pair rule genes

primary eve, rnt, paired

major secondary pair rule genes

add, ft3, sloppy-paired

what controls fine tuning of each segments?

modularity of enhancer regions of each gene
comboniations of enahncers determines which stripe its in

fushi tarazu mutant

mutations at borders of segments, these parts are called para segments


posterior of each parasegment has no expression
regulation at each parasegment regulates where fuhi tarazu is found

what pathway are Wg and En in?

Wg-> Wnt
En-> Transcription factor

what type of regulation occurs between adjacent parasegment border cells with engrailed and wingless?

recipricol regulation

what establishes the parasegement?

wg and en

Hox genes

homeotic genes that give rise to structures in the order of the genes on the chromosome (5' to 3') as anterior-posterior
dont know why
can express legs as antennae

Homeotic genes

Function: activate and repress the "realisator" genes which form tissue and organ primordia
repressed by polycomb
activated by trithorax

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