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Chapter 10: Cell Growth and Division
Terms in this set (58)
Cell Growth: Problems. (6)
1. More difficult to transport substances.
2. Less surface area compared to volume.
3. DNA can't handle process
4. Regulatory proteins signals divide.
Purpose of cell reproduction
1. Repair damage
3. Produce offspring
Production of an offspring from a single parent (produces a lot)
Production of an offspring from fusion of a male & female sex cell (gamete) - usually involves two parents
What are chromosomes?
Coiled strands of DNA which carry genetic information
What is the role of chromosomes?
Enables DNA to be duplicated and separated so they can be passed onto new cells.
What are prokaryotic chromosomes?
Contain a singular, circular chromosome. Many have a plasmid.
How to prokaryotic chromosomes' cells divide?
By binary fission
What are eukyriotic cells?
The chromosomes are located inside the nucleus
A molecule of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, and it is the material which makes up chromosomes.
Orderly sequence of events that occur in cell division.
Group of proteins which regulates the timing of the cell cycle (when each stage starts and stops)
Two main stages of cell cycle
Interphase and Cell Division
The time between cell divisions, when the cell grows, and the DNA duplicates (each chromosome makes a copy of itself)
Cell Division (M phase)
All the contents of the cell separate and are distributed into two new cells.
Cell Growth: The cell increases in size and starts
to make additional cytoplasm and
DNA Replication: Each chromosome duplicates
(makes a copy of itself)
Preparation for Mitosis: Cell prepares to divide by
continuing to make more proteins and
2 steps of M Phase (Cell Division)
Division of the chromosomes in the cell nucleus.
Division of the cytoplasm.
Difference between cell division and mitosis: Cell Division
Includes all the processes that a cell undergoes while dividing. It includes mitosis & cytokinesis.
Difference between cell division and mitosis: Mitosis
Describes what is happening to the chromosomes during cell division (only used for eukaryotes)
Each member of a duplicated chromosome. Chromatids are joined to eachother at the centromere.
Area where two sister chromatids are joined.
T-shaped structures in animal cells that help organize the spindles.
String-like structures (made of microtubules) that help separate chromatids.
What's the difference between chromatin and chromatids?
Chromatin is a molecule of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, and it is the material which makes up chromosomes.
Chromaids are Each member of a duplicated chromosome., joined together at the centromere.
a complex made up of centrioles and microtubules
Mitosis: Phases (6)
Interphase: What happens
The cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles.
Prophase: What happens
Chromatin -> chromosomes
Nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase: What happens
Chromosomes line up across center
Each chromosome is connected to spindle fibers
Anaphase: What happens
Centromeres are pulled apart by spindles
Sister chromatids-> individual chromosomes
Telophase: What happens
Chromosomes gather at opposite ends & lose distinct shapes
Two new nuclear envelopes will form
Cytokinesis: What happens
Cytoplasm pinches in half
Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes
In plants: Cell plate forms -> cell wall
Difference between sister chromatids and individual chromosomes
Duplicated chromosome -> Two sister chromatids (One chromosome since its joined)
After they separate, each chromatid becomes an individual chromosome
A "knob" in the middle of a chromosome
The cell cycle is controlled by
Regulatory proteins both inside and outside the cell
Regulatory proteins (3)
1. Internal Regulators
2. External Regulators
3. Growth Factors
Proteins that respond to events inside a cell
Proteins that respond to events outside a cell
External regulators that stimulate growth by signaling cells to divide
Uncontrolled cell division and growth
Why do cells divide uncontrollably
They do not respond to the regulatory proteins
Mass of cells formed when a rate of cell reproduction gets out of control
Mass of normal cells
Mass of abnormal cells
What causes cancer? (2)
1. Defects in genes (damage or defected genes)
2. Carcinogens: physical or chemical agent which can cause mutations in cancer causing genes (cause mutations in genes which manufacture the cyclins)
Effects of Malingant cells (3)
1. Displace normal tissue as it grows
2. Deprive healthy cells of nutrients
3. Cells may split off and move to other parts of the body forming new tumors (cancer spreads: metastasis)
Cancer Treatments (3)
1. Surgery: Tumors are removed
2. Radiation therapy: Kills cells by radiation
3. Chemotherapy: Kills cells by chemicals
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