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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Old Regime
The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. Monarchs here were absolute.
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
First Estate
the clergy in France and the heads of the church in Britain (include both higher and lower clergy)
Second Estate
the nobility in France and the peerage in Britain.
Third Estate
the commons
Bourgeoisie
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Estates-General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancient regime. The legislative branch of the French Government. For over 300 years, no laws were created. Block voting, which is for every estate. Legislative branch.
Corvee
unpaid labor (as for the maintenance of roads) required by a lord of his vassals in lieu of taxes, service for the government
Taille
(in France before 1789) A tax levied on the common people by the king or an overlord. Basically, a land tax.
Tithe
an offering of a tenth part of some personal income to the Church. The first and second estate are excused from this.
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Block Voting
when shareholders decide to vote alike
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
July 14th, 1789
The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
Factions
conflicting groups
The Great Fear
When the peasants were afraid that the nobles would send robbers to kill them. It was a result of the storming of Bastille.
(create a semi-circle in notebook)
Gabelle
Tax on salt and flour (flours can be called a staple) during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
Girondist
a member of the moderate republican party during the French Revolution
Deceleration of the Rights of Man
this was based on the ideas of the Enlightenment that the revolutionaries wanted to follow. It can be considered the blue print of the revolution
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Constitution of 1791
One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty, following the steps of the United States of America
Emigres
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
Deceleration of Pilnitz
issued by King of Prussia and emperor of Austria, 2 monarchs threatened to intervene to protect the French monarch, bluff but revolutionaries took it seriously
Assignats
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Sans-culottes
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
National Convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Maximillien Robepierre
member of the Estates-General and wanted abolish slavery
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Constitution of 1795
re-established property rights for voting
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Coup detat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Plebiscite
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Code Napoleon
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France.
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Joseph Bonaparte
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Louis Bonaparte
Elected president of France following general election. Won 70% of the votes because of his name. Bonaparte later changed the government to an empire w/himself as emperor just like his uncle, the original Napoleon.
Czar Alexander I
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Abdicate
give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by Prince Metternich, restore Europe to Prerevolution time
Ostracism
the state of being banished or ostracized (excluded from society by general consent)
St. Helena
island owned by the British and the final exile of Napoleon