Ex Phys #3
Terms in this set (46)
1.specific exercise overload enhances training response. 2. training at higher intensities allows the body to function more efficiently. 3. must manipulate frequency, duration, and intensity.
1. Depends on type and mode of overload principle. 2. specific exercise to specific adaptations to specific training response. 3. Specific adaptations to impose demands 4. Specificity of VO2 max. 5. Specificity of local changes.
Specificity of VO2 Max (in detail)
VO2 max increased more when men swam vs. when they ran. When training for certain aerobic activities one must make sure that 1. the appropriate muscles for the activity are being used and 2. That there is enough physical activity being done to stress the Cardiovascular syst. Greatest improvement comes when test exercise mimics the training exercise. Smallest improvement when the two are not similar. Aerobic exercise improves cardiac function
Specificity of Local Changes
Performance and Aerobic Power by controlling Oxygen transport and Oxygen use w/ trained muscles. Specific aerobic improvement comes from greater regional blood flow in 1. increased microcirculation, 2. redistribution of cardiac output, 3. combined effect of both factors. These adaptations ONLY occur in specifically trained muscles.
Individual Difference Principle
Everyone responds differently to a trained stimulus.
Initial values= those with lower fitness have the greatest improvement. Get the most benefits when when training programs focuses on individual.
Detraining occurs when a person stops participating in physical activity the most trained athlete can start to detrain. Only takes 1-2 weeks.
Anaerobic system changes w/ training
activities that demand a high level of anaerobic metabolism induces changes in the immediate and short term energy system.
3 Changes w/ Anaerobic Power training
1.Increased levels of Anaerobic substrates. ( ATP, PCr, and glycogen w/ 28% increase in strength.
2. Increase in key enzymes that controls anaerobic glucose catabolism( most increase w/ fast twitch muscles.
3. Increase capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate. * because increase in glycogen and ability to accept pain in a fatigue state.
1.) Metabolic adaptations (0)
Aerobic training improves capacity for respiratory control
Metabolic Machinery -(a-b)
Mitochondrial potential can limit the supply of oxidative capacity. Endurance trained fibers have more/bigger mitochondria. Increase muscle mitochondria to AEROBICALLY generate ATP. Increase in total mitochondria= enzyme changes. increase in mitochondria exceeds typical increases in Vo2 max. Enzymatic changes allows one to keep a higher percentage of aerobic capacity w/o blood lactate accumulating
Fat metabolism -a(i)
endurance training increases oxidation of fatty acids for rest and submaximal exercise. Can use intramuscular tryglecerols as the primary source for fatty acid oxidation.Four factors contribute to an increase in lipolysis- 1. greater blood flow within trained muscle. 2. More fat metabolizing along w/ fat metabolizing enzymes. 3. enhanced muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity. 4.decreased catecholamine release.
enhanced fat catabolism in sub-maximal exercise allows endurance athletes to save glycogen .
Carbohydrate Metabolism- a(ii)
trained muscles enhance ability to oxidize carbohydrate during maximal exercise. large quantities of pyruvate flow through aerobically which also increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity and increases glycogen stores.
reduce CHO and increase FA w/ endurance training comes from:
1.decreased muscle glycogen use
2. reduced production of glucose
3.reduce of plasma borne glucose
Muscle fiber type and size-b
slow-twitch muscle fibers w/ high capacity to aerobically generate ATP has large quantities of myoglobin.
more physical activity= more myoglobin.
2.) Cardiovascular Adaptations
a. Cardiovascular hypertrophy
long term aerobic training increases the heart mass and volume. Greater volume in left ventricular end diastolic volume. Enlargement means an increase in the left ventricular cavity
( ECCENTRIC HYPERTROPHY).
or thickening of the walls ( CONCENTRIC HYPERTROPHY.)
Exercise training alters contractile properties of the cardiac muscles fibers. 1. increased sensitivity to Ca2+ activation, changes kin force length relationship, increases power output.
Training effects cardiac size structure, there is no change in shape during short term exercise. When endurance training enlargement of left ventricular is not permanent.
Swimmers and Runners: isotonic endurance
(heart has larger volume but, smaller mass.)
Wrestlers and Shot putters: isometric= resistance - trained power athletes.
( heart has smaller volume but larger mass.)
b. Plasma Volume
12-20% increase in plasma volume. Absence of changes in RBC mass after 3-6 aerobic sessions.
Plasma volume increase enhances circulatory reserve and increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, oxygen transport, VO2 max, and temperature regulating ability.
c. Heart Rate
Endurance training favors vagal. An increase in Parasympathetic activity and a small decrease in sympathetic activity. Untrained students hearts rate rose rapidly whereas athletes did not have such a rapid increase.
d. Stroke Volume
Endurance training causes the heart's stroke volume to increase. Due to four factors:
1. Increased left ventricular volume and mass due to training induced plasma volume.
2. Reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness
3. Increased diastolic filling time because of induced training bradycardia.
4. May have improved intrinsic cardiac contractile functions.
1. Endurance athletes has a larger stroke volume .
2. The greatest SV increase from rest to moderate exercise.
3. Maximun SV occurs around 40-50% VO2 max.
4. For untrained people there is only a small increase in transition.
-Q increase from acceleration in HR
-endurance athlete : HR and SV increase for Q. SV expands 60% above resting values.
e.) Cardiac Output
i. An increase in maximum cardiac output represents the most significant adaptation in cardiovascular function with aerobic training
1. Increase cardiac output capacity results directly from improved stroke volume
ii. A large maximum cardiac output (SV) distinguishes champion endurance athletes from other untrained counterparts
iii. Cardiac output increases linearly with oxygen consumption
iv. Endurance training, while increasing maximal cardiac output, reduces the heart's minute volume during moderate exercise
v. A training-induced reduction in submaximal cardiac output presumably reflects two factors:
1. More effective redistribution of blood flow
2. Trained muscles' enhanced capacity to generate ATP aerobically at a lower tissue PO2
f.) Oxygen Extraction ( a-VO2 difference)
i.Aerobic training increases the quantity of oxygen extracted from circulating blood
g.) Blood Flow Distribution: sub-maximal
1. Trained persons perform submaximal exercise with a lower cardiac output than untrained persons
2. Two factors contribute to reduced muscle blood flow in submaximal exercise
a. Relatively rapid training-induced changes in vasoactive properties of large arteries and local resistance vessels within skeletal and cardiac muscle, mediated by the dilation effect of endothelium-derived nitric oxide
b. Changes within muscle cells that enhance oxidative capacity
3. **as the muscle's ability to deliver, extract, and use oxygen increases, the active tissue's oxygen needs require proportionally less blood flow
g.) Blood Flow Distribution: Maximal
1. Three factors affect how aerobic training increases total skeletal muscle blood flow during maximal exercise
a. Larger maximal cardiac output
b. Distribution of blood to muscle from nonactive areas that temporarily compromise blood flow during all-out effort
c. Enlargement of cross sectional areas of large and small arteries and veins, and increase in capillarization per gram of muscle
i. This effect begins rapidly from increased vascular endothelial growth factors
2. Training decreases in splanchnic and renal blood flow in exercise occurs from reduced sympathetic nervous system outflow to these tissues
3. **Oxygen supply (blood flow), NOT oxygen use (extraction), limits the maximal respiratory rate of muscle tissues
h. Blood pressure
i. Regular aerobic training reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure during rest and submaximal exercise
ii. The largest reduction occurs in systolic pressure
Pulmonary Adaptations W/ Training: Submaximal
i. Several weeks of aerobic training reduces the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) during submaximal exercise
ii. And lower the percentage of the total exercise oxygen cost attributable to breathing
iii. Reduced oxygen consumption by the ventilatory musculature enhances exercise endurance for two reasons:
1. It reduces fatiguing effects of exercise on the ventilatory musculature
2. Any oxygen freed from use by the respiratory musculature becomes available to active locomotor muscles
iv. In general, exercise training increases tidal volume and decreases breathing frequency
v. Substantial specificity exists for ventilatory responses relative to the type of exercise and training adaptations
Pulmonary Adaptations W/ training: Maximal
i. Maximal exercise ventilation increases from increases in tidal volume and breathing rate as oxygen consumption increases
1. Any increase in VO2 max raises the body's oxygen requirement and need to eliminate additional carbon dioxide
Pulmonary Adaptations W/ Training: Training may benefit ventilatory Endurance
i. Exercise training allows for sustained, exceptionally high levels of submaximum ventilation
ii. Exercise training increases inspiratory muscle capacity to generate force and sustain a given level of inspiration pressure
iii. These adaptations benefit performance in three ways
1. Reduce overall exercise energy demands because of less respiratory work
2. Reduce lactate production by the ventilatory muscles during intense, prolonged exercise
3. Enhance how ventilatory muscles metabolize circulating lactate as metabolic fuel
Blood Lactate Concentration:
a. Endurance training lowers blood lactate levels and extends exercise before onset of blood lactate accumulation during exercise of increasing intensity
i. Decreased rate of lactate formation during exercise
ii. Increased rate of lactate clearance during exercise
iii. Combined effects of decreased lactate formation and increased lactate removal
Other Aerobic training Adaptations
a. Body Composition Changes: reduces body mass and body fat and augments a more favorable body fat distribution
b. Body Heat Transfer: well-hydrated, trained individuals exercise more comfortably in hot environments because of a larger plasma volume and more responsive thermoregulatory mechanisms; in other words, they dissipate heat faster and more economically than sedentary individuals
c. Performance Changes: enhanced endurance performance accompanies physiological adaptations with training
d. Psychologic benefits
Factors that Affect Aerobic Training Responses
1. Initial Level of Aerobic fitness
2. Training Intensity
3. Training Frequency
4. Training Duration
Initial Level of Aerobic Fitness
a. Ttraining range between 5-25%
b. The more fit = the less of percentage of improvement
i. The more unfit = bigger improvement
intensity of overload
b. Seven different ways to express exercise intensity
i. Energy expended per unit time
ii. Absolute exercise level or power output
iii. Relative metabolic level expressed as percentage of VO2 max
iv. Exercise below, at, or above the lactate threshold, or OBLA
v. Exercise heart rate, or percentage of maximum heart rate
vi. Multiples of resting metabolic rate
vii. Rating perceived exertion
c. Arm (upper-body) exercise produces lower HR max than leg exercises.
d. Train at a percentage of HR max
i. Aerobic capacity improves if exercise intensity regularly maintains heart rate between 55-70% of maximum
ii. Karvonen Formula: method to establish the training threshold
e. Is strenuous Training more effective?
i. The higher the training intensity above threshold, the greater the training improvement for VO2 max
ii. More fit men and women generally require higher threshold levels to stimulate a training response than less fit persons
1. The ceiling for training intensities remain unknown, although about 85% VO2 max probably represents an upper limit
iii. Is less intense training effective?
1. Generally, longer exercise duration offsets lower exercise intensity in terms of benefits
a. Maintaining constancy for exercise intensity, duration, and frequency produces a similar training response independent of training mode - provided exercise involves relatively large muscle groups
Maintenance of Aerobic Fitness Gains
• With intensity held constant, the frequency and duration of exercise required to maintain a certain level of aerobic fitness remain considerably lower than that required to induce improvements
o In contrast, a small decline in exercise intensity reduces VO2 max
o This indicates that exercise intensity plays a principal role in maintaining the increase in aerobic capacity achieved through training
• Components other than VO2 max
o Fitness components other than VO2 max more readily suffer adverse effects of reduced exercise training volume
o A single measure such as VO2 max cannot adequately evaluate all of the factors that affect exercise training and detraining adaptations
Training Muscles to become stronger
• A muscle strengthens when trained near its current maximal force-generating capacity
• Importantly, overload intensity (level of tension placed on the muscle), not the type of exercise that applies the overload, generally governs strength improvements
o Occurs when the muscle shortens and joint movement occurs as tension develops
o Ex. Raising a dumbbell from the extended to the flexed elbow position
o Occurs when external resistance exceeds muscle force and the muscle lengthens while developing tension
o The weight slowly lowers against the force of gravity
o The muscle fibers of the upper arm muscles lengthen in an eccentric action to prevent the weight from crashing to the surface
o = lengthening of the muscle
• bringing dumbbell from flexed to extended position
o Occurs when a muscle generates force and attempts to shorten but cannot overcome the external resistance
o This type of muscle action does not produce external work
o An isometric (static) action can generate considerable force despite the lack of noticeable lengthening or shortening of the muscle sarcomeres
Progressive Resistance Exercise
provides a practical application of the overload principle and forms the basis of most resistance training programs
o Repetitions → increasing the weight
o Overload principle
• Volume must increase for there to be adaptation
• Volume = intensity x reps x sets
• Increase over
o Sets (during workout)
• Governs muscle adaptation NOT type of exercise
• Combats Principle of Accomodation
o Periodization varies training intensity and volume to ensure that peak performance coincides with major competition
o It subdivides a specific resistance0training period such as 1 year (macrocycle) into smaller periods or phases (mesocycles), with each mesocycle again separated into weekly microcycles
o *the training model progressively decreases training volume and increases intensity as duration of the programs progresses to maximize gains in muscular strength and power
Resistance training adaptations
o Increase in muscular strength is a result of BOTH neural and muscular adaptations or improvements (i.e. neuromuscular adaptations)
o Therefore, neural activity and muscle hypertrophy are 2 components that contribute to muscle strength or force production capacity
Resistance training Induces damage
o Muscle damage can be repaired by the progeny of satellite cells
o When muscle fibers need to be replaced, signals are sent to otherwise quiescent satellite cells, which activates their proliferation and generates proliferating myoblasts
o Myoblasts later differentiate and fuse to form myotubes which later cluster in myofibers
o After experiencing a stress such as exercise, the myofibers do not just grow back, they grow back bigger as an adaptation to the stress placed upon the muscle
• With adequate nutrition
o Data suggests that when intensity is controlled for, higher volume of exercise (ex. Multi-sets) increases satellite cell quantity more than lover volume exercise, especially in lower body muscle groups
o An elevated abundance of satellite cells may be conductive to hypertrophic adaptations during resistance training
• Growth in cross-sectional area of muscle
• Muscle gets bigger
• Muscle cell gets bigger
• Division of muscle cells
• Suggested in ELITE level body builders
• Neural adaptations with Resistance Training that increase Muscular Strength
o Greater efficiency in neural recruitment patterns
o Increased motor neuron excitability
o Increased CNS activation
o Improved motor unit synchronization and increased firing rates
o Lowering of neural inhibitory reflexes
o Inhibition of Golgi tendon organs
Psychologic Neural Factors
o Adaptive alterations in nervous system function that elevate motor neuron output largely account for the rapid and large strength increases early in training, often without an increase in muscle size and cross-sectional area
o Less intense, prolonged workouts produced a more expansive NMJ (neuromuscular junction) area, whereas intense exercise produced a greater dispersion of synapses
o Three factors: muscle cross section, fiber type, and mechanical arrangement of bone and muscle, explain strength capacity
• An increase in muscular tension (force) with exercise training provides the primary stimulus to initiate the process of skeletal muscle growth or hypertrophy
• Two fundamental adaptations necessary for muscle hypertrophy are mobilized from the initial phases of resistance training
• Increased protein synthesis
• Satellite cell proliferation
• Accelerated protein synthesis, particularly when combined with the effects of insulin and adequate amino acid availability, increases muscle size during resistance training
• Muscle hypertrophy reflects a fundamental biologic adaptation to increased workload independent of gender and age
• Overload training enlarges individual muscle fibers with subsequent muscle growth
• Resistance exercise creates more efficient translation of mRNA that mediates stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis
• Muscle growth occurs from repeated muscle fiber injury followed by overcompensation of protein synthesis to produce a net anabolic effect
• Cell's myofibrils thicken and increase in number
• Intramuscular ATP, PCr, and glycogen also increase considerably
Specificity of the hypertrophic response
• A single muscle compartmentalizes into distinct regions
• This indicates that the muscle's different areas respond differently to the imposed adaptive stress
• the overall lack of homogeneity in skeletal muscle's response to overload, coupled with intramuscular differences in fiber type and composition, governs the training adaptation to specific resistance exercise
Muscle Cell Remodeling
• Fusion of satellite cell nuclei and incorporation into existing muscle fibers allow the fiver to synthesize more protein to form additional myofibril contractile elements
• Peptide growth factors govern satellite cell activity and possibly exercise0induced muscle fiber proliferation and differentiation
• Muscle fiber-type transformation may occur with specific exercise training
• The genetic code more than likely exerts the greatest influence on fiber-type distribution
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