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Internationalism and the Progressive Movement
Terms in this set (82)
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
A historian and United States Senator from Indiana who also was a skilled orator. One of his speeches justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
1. Protecting the social welfare.2. Promoting moral improvements.3. Creating economic reform.4. Fostering efficiency.
Protecting Social Welfare
Different opportunities to help the poor, women and children and the central theme was to adopt the idea of temperance and hard work.
Promoting Moral Reform
Prohibition and women's suffrage. Promoted by the WCTU and the Anti-saloon league.
Creating Economic Reform
Fighting the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under the free market system.
The idea of producing more faster and cheaper.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over. Founded the American Socialist Party in 1900
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Philosophy of Frederick W. Taylor that sought to increase productivity and make the work easier by scientifically studying work methods and establishing standards.
The push by many groups to limit the availability of alcohol. A total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933.
Robert La Follette
Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary. He became a senator in 1906. He taxed railroad companies at the rate as all other property. Made it illegal for railroad companies to buy off officials
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
The popular vote on the initiative
gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person's term ended
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
(WW) , National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
Spread of Woman's Suffrage
1. Try to convince state legislature the right to vote. Force states to grant right to vote by 1896; Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho.2. Pushed court cases to test the 14th Amendment. It said all citizens had the right to vote and women were citizens.3. Pushed for national constitutional amendment.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War. Was vice-president for McKinley until McKinley was assassinated and he assumed presidency. Was often remembered for expanding presidential power. Governor of New York.
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed.
The twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
A Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional. Not much support by the progressive movement.
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm. Some lands would be preserved while others were developed.
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
Clayton Anti-trust Act
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Authorized the collection of income tax. This made the rich pay their fair share to the government as well as allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs
Federal Reserve System
(WW) 1913 , independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands.
Ratified 1920. Prohibits each of the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's sex.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
US minister to Hawaii; ordered marines ashore from the cruiser Boston supposedly to protect American lives and property
1894 wealthy, plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He asked US to annex Hawaii.
Cuban poet and journalist who organized a guerilla revolution against Spain in 1895- "Cuba Libre" free Cuba was his battle cry-and sought U.S. support and intervention.
The Yellow Press
A type of journalism that stressed lurid and sensational news to boost circulation.
Nation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898; Evidence suggests an internal explosion, however Spanish military was framed by Yellow Journalism; The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
May 1, 1898 Naval Comander of the Pacific, Dewey & his men captured/destroyed all Spanish ships in Manila Bay; Instant Hero;Liberated Manila from Spain on Aug 13, 1898
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba. Famous for the charge of San Juan Hill. Roosevelt given credit but had little to do with victory.
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
Open Door Notes
message send by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.
in 1900 a group of Chinese nationalists known to the western world as Boxers, rebelled against foreign encroachments on China and laid siege to foreign embassies in Peking. The Boxers went to the streets shouting for the removal of the "foreign devils." An international expedition of British, German, Russian, Japanese, and American forces quelled the rebellion 6 weeks later and agreed to settle for an indemnity from China of approximately $333 million
Opposed to US Imperialism: 1). Morality-believed that taking over Filipino's would violate American principle "the right of all people to independence and self-government" 2). Economics-feared competition from Filipino producers 3). Legality and Race-feared contaminating effects of contact with "inferior" Asian races. Famous anti-imperialists: Carl Schurz, Mark Twain.
1). Protected American business interests 2). Increased business markets and access to raw materials 3). Increased the military 4). Spread of christianity to inferior peoples.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow journalism." "Give me the picture,and ill furnish the war"
Writer of the New York newspaper- "World" and competed with William Randolph Hearst to print the most grisly stories about Spanish atrocities- wartime acts of brutality and cruelty. Used yellow journalism to attract readers.
Led a commission in the military government of the Army Medical corps that discovered a cure for the deadly disease of yellow fever and malaria.
Fancisco "Pancho" Villa
Took money from the rich and gave it to the poor
John J. Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)
Importance of Naval Power
1). Create the Great White Fleet 2). Create naval bases 3). Cut a canal in Panama 4). Acquire Hawaii and other pacific islands for strategic purposes.
Great White Fleet
in 1907, Roosevelt celebrated America's rise to the status of a world power by sending the entire US Navy ( by then only 2nd to the British Fleet) on a grand tour around the world, set off rousing celebrations, around the world at every port. It came back into American waters in 1909 just in time to close out Roosevelt's presidency on a note of success.
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic.
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
The "Big Stick"
Argument that European powers must not intervene in the Western Hemisphere but warned that unrest in Latin America would bring the might of the U.S. to protect American economic interests.
Under President Taft, term used to describe the efforts of the U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. It protected American investments in Latin America and Asia and encouraged more stable governments.
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
The White Man's Burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism.
abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy
Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so that work on the Panama Canal could proceed.
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches.
Country that McKinley feared would try to annex the Hawaiian Islands, so he gave Hawaii full territorial status.
1912 it became a territory of the U.S. Desired for the large amounts of gold and other opportunities.
Spain tried to break through US blockade, US is able to destroy all the Spanish ships, Spain is forced to surrender.
Ceded to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War.
Small group of islands in the Pacific Ocean valued for its naval station; the US, Great Britain, and Germany all competed over control; Germany and the US divided the islands among themselves in 1899.
As the American government began work to advance the nation's economic interests overseas they began to intervene in foreign affairs more and more. Taft supported a revolt against the current government and when the revolution took power the secretary of state Philander C. Knox encouraged the banks to offer substantial loans to the new nation and because of this America would have huge economic and political sway over the new government.
The Russo-Japanese war fought over this and Japan won the Port Arthur base.
Colonized by U.S. in 1893 and annexed in 1898. Helped foster trade with Asian markets. By annexing it kept Japan from expanding East.
Manila Bay, Philippines
Site of the first dramatic American naval victory that led to U. S. acquistion of rich, Spanish-owned Pacific islands.
Primary focal point of European and American imperialism in East Asia for its raw materials, cheap labor, and especially its tapped markets.
Pacific island that was acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War.
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
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