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MUS 352 Thurs. Mar. 8, 2012
Terms in this set (33)
Correlations between the lives of George Frideric Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach
-[birth year] same year 1685
-[birth place] George Frederich Handel was born in Halle, Germany which is 50 miles from Eisenach, Germany where Johann Sebastian Bach was born
-[acquaintances] Handel was taught by Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau, whose position at the Liebfrauenkirche in Halle, Germany was offered to Bach in 1713 (Zachau had died in 1712). Handel was friends with Johann Mattheson who was considered to be better suited to the Kantor position at Thomaskirche in Leipzig.
-[death] Both died of sepsimia due to a cataract surgery performed by the occulist John Taylor.
What was the occupation of George Frideric Handel, and what does this imply?
-George Frederich Handel's father was a barber-surgeon, which means his family was probably poor.
Describe George Frideric Handel's musical beginnings.
-by the age of eleven, George Frideric Handel was proficient on the violin, harpsichord, oboe, and organ.
-Initially, he could not openly practice music because his father wanted him to be a lawyer.
-However, his father was encouraged to allow Handel to study under Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau, the principal organist at the Liebfrauenkirche in Halle, Germany.
What position did George Frideric Handel receive at the age of 17?
-When he was seventeen years old, George Frideric Handel became the principal organist of the Calvinist Domkirche
When and where did George Frideric Handel have his second job, and what was it?
-George Frideric Handel played violin and harpsichord in the opera that showed his operas Almira and Nero in 1705.
From who did George Frideric Handel receive an invitation and to where?
-In 1706 George Frideric Handel received an invitation to Italy from Gian de Medici
How long did George Frideric Handel stay in Italy after 1706, and what cities did he visit?
-George Frideric Handel he stayed in Italy for more than 3 years after 1706, and visited Florence, Rome, Napoli, and Venice
What did George Frideric Handel do after returning from his post 1706, 3-plus-year stay in Italy?
-After his 3-plus-year staye in Italy, George Frideric Handel returned to Germany and became Kappellmeister to the Elector Georg of Hanover
What did George Frideric Handel do in 1710 and why?
-In 1710, George Frideric Handel went to London and began producing operas there because he was unhappy with his duties as Kappellmaster to Elector Georg of Hanover
What did George Frideric Handel do in 1712?
-In 1712 George Frideric Handel, after having spent a bit of time back in Germany, returned to England and composed several operas and some ceremonial music for Queen Anne's Birthday.
What did Queen Anne give George Frideric Handel, and when and why?
-In or after 1712, Queen Anne gave George Frideric Handel an annual stipend of 200 punds in ordder to keep him in London as a court composer.
Where did George Frideric Handel spend his years after 1712?
-After 1712, George Frideric Handel spent the rest of his life in England, and never returned to Hanover where he had the position of Kapellmeister.
When and where did George Frideric Handel become a naturalized citizen?
-George Frideric Handel became a naturalized citizen of England in 1726 (he never returned to his Kapellmeistership in Hanover, Germany)
What happened in the politics of George Frideric Handel's new home country in 1714?
-In 1714, Elector Georg of Hanover became King George I of England (Queen Anne's successor)
How was George Frideric Handel treated by British royals during his career in London?
-In or after 1712, Queen Anne gave George Frideric Handel an annual stipend of 200 pounds in ordder to keep him in London as a court composer.
-After Queen Anne died in 1714, King George I of England (formerly Elector Georg of Hanover) succeeded her and soon doubled the annual stipend she had given Handel
-Handel also received a stipend from the Princess of Wales
What position did George Frideric Handel receive in 1717, and who held the position before?
-In 1717 George Frideric Handel succeeded Johann Pepusch as chapel master to the Duke of Chandos.
What pieces did George Frideric Handel write for the Duke of Chandos?
-George Frideric Handel wrote the Chandos Anthems for the Duke of Chandos.
What are the Chandos Anthems?
-The Chandos Anthems are choral pieces George Frideric Handel wrote for the duke of Chandos
What challenges preceded George Frideric Handel writing of the oratorio Messiah?
-George Frideric Handel suffered a stroke and found that his operas ahd begun to fail. However, after this, he began writing oratorios like Messiah.
When did George Frideric Handel compose his famous oratorio Messiah?
-in 1741, George Frideric Handel composed his famous oratorio Messiah.
Who did George Frideric Handel often cast for the heroes AND heroines of his operas?
-George Frideric Handel often cast castrati to play both heroes AND heroines in his operas.
What is a castrato?
-A castrato is a man whose testicles had been removed and/or rendered infertile prior to puberty, allowing him to retain the highest notes of his boyhood range well into manhood
When was a castrato usually operated on?
-boys who would become castrati were usually operated on at about age 9 or 10
What physical anamolies did castrati possess as a result of their altered...body?
-Physically, castrati grew very tall, had enormous rig cages, were prone to wait gain and pneumonia. The also often lost their voices during puberty. (only 5% actually got to be opera starts)
In what subjects were castrati trained?
-Castrati were trained in harpsichord, composing voical music,,
What roles did castrati play?
-Castrati often played both female and male
Who were some of the most well known castrati ?
Who were the earliest benefactors of opera seria?
-The earliest benefactors of opera seria were the members of the Arcadian Academy.
What was the goal of the Arcadian Academy?
-The goal of the Arcadian Academy was to purify and ennoble the popular art form which opera had become.
Who were members of the Arcadian Acadmy?
-Aristocrats and thinkers were memebrs of the Arcadian Academy
What were the ideals of opera seria?
-The ideals of opera seria were those described by Aristotle
What were the modles for opera seria?
-The models for opera seria were French classical theater of Corneille and Racine.
Who were the earliest librettists of opera seria
Apostolo Zeno, and Pietro Metastasio
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