271 terms

Science 0014

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Crust
1st layer in Earth's structure, thin outer layer of rock, 3-31 miles wide (rocks & basalts).
Mantle
2nd layer in Earth's structure, a deeper layer of hot flowing rock, called magma, 1,800 miles wide (silicon, oxygen, magnesium, & iron).
Outer & Inner Core
the center region of the earth, about 2,200 miles thick, very hot rock, consisting mostly of iron & nickel, innermost part is solid; the outer core is hot liquid.
Oceanic & Continental Crust
the crust beneath the ocean is the thinnest; crust beneath the continents is thicker. The earth crust is thickest beneath mountain ranges.
What is the "inside" of Earth like?
Beneath the relatively thin crust of the earth lies the mantle, below the mantle, the core. The center of the earth is about 4,000 miles from the surface.
Plate tectonics
The theory that the Earth's outer shell (crust) is made up of rigid plates which, throughout history, have slowly moved about on a layer of hot flowing rock (mantle), they continue to do so today. These plates move in response to internal forces from deep within the earth, causing them to collide, shear, compress, pull apart, and slide under or over each other. The huge amounts of energy generated by the movement of these massive plates contributes to the formation of volcanoes and mountains ("tectonics" means builder) as well as earthquakes, especially at the edges of these plates.
Igneous
formed from cooling of molten rock, called lava (granite, pumice, obsidian, basalt).
Sedimentary
formed in layers as the result of moderate pressure on accumulated sediments; most likely to contain plant and animal remains, called fossils (sandstone, limestone-buildings, coal-heat, & shale).
Metamorphic
formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface (marble-buildings, slate-roofing/furniture, & quartz).
Soil
is formed from ground up fragments of rock, water, decaying organic (formerly living plant and animal) matter and air. Soil is formed when forces like wind, running water, or ice break down (erode) rocks and other material into tiny grains and granules.
Minerals
a single homogeneous naturally-occurring, inorganic (non-living) solid in which the same kinds of atoms are arranged in the same way to form crystal. (copper & gold) (color & hardness).
What is difference between a rock and a mineral?
Rocks are made up of minerals and minerals are formed naturally (elements/compounds).
What substances are found in concrete?
Sand and gravel bonded together by cement and water. Cement is a mixture of lime stone and clay.
What are fossils and how are they formed?
the evidence found in rock, most often sedimentary rock, of presence of a plant or an animal from an earlier geological period. Fossils are formed when minerals in ground water replace materials in the organism's bone &tissue, creating a replica in stone of the organism, or of its tracks.
Hydrosphere
the watery areas of the earth, including oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water.
The difference between saltwater and freshwater bodies of water and the kinds of minerals contained in salt water.
oceans & seas containing saltwater and saltwater ecosystems. The minerals found in saltwater: salt(sodium chloride), iron, phosphates, nitrates, magnesium; contain very little salt; lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, marshes.
The four major oceans:
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, & Artic.
The physical features at the shore and beneath the surface of the oceans:
shoreline, Beaches, Sandbar, Spit, Bay, Lagoon, Barrier islands, Arches and stacks; Continental shelf/slope, Abyssal plain, and Mid-oceanic ridges.
Atmosphere
gases that comprise the atmosphere: the air we breathe is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, & 1% other gases, like Carbon Dioxide.
Troposphere
the layer closet to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; thinnest layer. Contains most of the gases and dust. Jet stream winds occur at the top boundary.
Stratosphere/Ozone Layer
the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer; temperature increases as you go up its very cold. Ozone is an oxygen-like gS tha absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
Mesosphere
the coldest layer!Temperatures as low as minus 100 degrees Celsius.
In which layer of the atmosphere is the aurora borealis displayed? What is the cause of the natural light show?
Mesosphere; photons from the Sun.
What is air pressure and how is it measured?
Is the force of the atmosphere pushing from every angle (the weight of the air above you). It is measured with a barometer in millibars.
Weathering
breakdown of rock to form sediment.Physical (for example, wind, moving water, snow & ice) and chemical (for example salt in water) weathering can, eventually, erode almost all rocks.
Why do monuments in Egypt last for thousands of years, while the same monuments transported to northern climates deteriorate very quickly?
Because in the Egyptian desert, there is very little rain so monuments do not erode away as quickly. Rain causes erosion, a powerful force that degrades stone and rock relatively quickly.
Erosion
the process by which weathered particles are moved from one location to another. The causes of erosion include gravity, wind, ice (glacial activity) and moving water, and they can be quite powerful. For example, beach erosion caused by the pounding surf can destroy homes built too close to the shoreline,
Volcanoes
mountains within which lie a natural tubular opening in the Earth's crust, called vent.
What is the "Ring of Fire"?
a zone located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean, along the west coasts of South, Central and North America, and the east coasts of Asia, Japan, the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand, which is dotted by many volcanoes. This is also the site of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
What causes a volcano to erupt?
Because of the intense build-up of pressure deep within the Earth which forces holt melted rock (magma), ash and gases up to the surface, under tremendous pressure, through the vent. Magma, ash, hot gases and fragments of roc erupt into the atmosphere and pour out over the surrounding land. After magma erupts from within a volcano, it is called lava; lava flows down the sides of the volcano, adding rock as it cool. Volcanoes are very destructive natural processes. The ancient Romans city of Pompeii was buried under waves of lava and ash from the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD. A volcanic eruption may also trigger a tsunami, a giant tidal wave which causes even more destruction.
Earthquakes
is a vibration of the earth's surface that follows when rocks in the earth's crust move opposite sides of a fault, or break line. Fault lines occur in areas where the earth's crust is weak. When rocks breaks within the earth's crust, it releases energy in the form of shock waves, called seismic waves, which travel out from the hypocenter ( the source deep within the earth where the waves originate), to the epicenter ( the point on the earth's surface above the hypocenter and the site of the most violet shaking), in all directions. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists, and they use a machine called a seismograph to detect earthquakes and to measure their magnitude.The Richter Scale is a mathematical formula that determine the magnitude of an earthquakenby measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves over a given period of time. It is useful in rating and comparing the sizes of different earthquakes. Earthquakes are also a very destructive natural process. In 1976, an measured 9.3 on the Richter Scale occurred under the Indian Ocean, off the northwestern coast of Indonesia. It triggered the devastating tsunami which flooded islands in western Indonesa, off southeren India, including Sri Lanka, and off eastern Africa, including the Seychelles and Madagascar.
What causes earthquakes?
The quake, or shaking, is caused bybthe vibrations resulting from the break and sudden discoloration in the earth's crust. It can also be caused by a volcanic eruption, or even bynsome man-made explosions.
Current
surface currents are caused by winds and by the earth's rotation. Deep-Water currents result from changes in temperature and chemical content of the water. Cold water is denser, and therefore heavier, so it sinks causing warmer water to rise. Deepwater currents are the movements of higher density cold water into areas of lower density warm water.
Waves
oscillating, up-and-down movements of the water's surface; caused by wind, earthquakes, or tides.
Tides
are regular rise and fall of waters in oceans and seas.
What causes tides? What do "low tide" and high tide" mean?
The moon's gravitational force causes ocean water to bulge toward it, and when the gravity of both sun and earth act together, they make a high tide (Moon-Earth-Sun). The gravity of the moon and sun working against each other make a low tide (Earth-Moon-Sun). Low tides also occur during a new moon and a solar eclipse.
The greatest difference in water level between a low tide and a high tide occurs because of what alignment of
the Moon, Sun, and Earth?
Because the sun and moon are lined up and "pull" on the earth in opposite directions.

Spring Tide has the maximum range between high and low tides. This occurs during the full moon, when the earth is between the sun and moon.(Sun-Earth-Moon).
Water Cycle:
Heat from the sun evaporates water off of oceans, lakes, and rivers (evaporation). Hot air, containing water vapor, rises and begins to cool. As it cools, the water vapor condenses to form clouds (condensation). Water falls from the clouds and lands as rain (if the temperture is >32 degrees F), or as snow (if temperture is < 32 degrees F) (precipitation). Water then returns to the oceans, lakes and rivers to complete the cycle (collection).
Evaporation 1st
the process by which any substance is converted from a liquid state into vapor or gas; the sun heats water in soil, rivers, lakes, and oceans, causing it it evaporate and become (water vapor, a gas).
Condensation 2nd
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state; water vapor rises, cools, and condenses to form tiny water droplets or ice crystals in clouds.
Precipitation 3rd
condensed moisture in the clouds that falls tonthe surface of the earth may take the form of rain, sleet (or freezing rain), snow or hailstones. Condensed moisture that forms on the earth's surface may take the form of dew or frost, depending of the temperature.
Transpiration 4th
the process of giving off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membrane.
Collection
the process in the water cycle during which streams and rivers carry water back to the oceans.
What clouds are made of and how they form and change:
Clouds are an aggregation ofvminute particles of water or ice suspended in the air. Coluds are form when warm air rises and then cools in the upper atmosphere below a temp called dew point. The resulting moisture condenses into dropets upon microscopic dust particlesvin the atmosphere. Cooler air holds less water vapor than warmer air, so in the cooler upper atmosphere, some of the water vapor condenses and forms a cloud. When the cloud becomes too full of water drops, the water will fall in the form of precipitation.
The major types of clouds:
Stratus- smooth layers of low clouds; Cumulus- turret-shaped tops, flat bottoms (large, white puffy clouds, cotton balls);Cirrus- feather-like clouds made of ice crystals (very thin, high clouds).
Climate
the average long-range weather patterns, in aregion including tempertures, amounts and kinds of precipation, and wind patterns. The climate in one region on Earth may be very different from the climate in another area, and is determined by the interaction of such things as ocean currents and proximity to bodies of water, latitude, altitude, winds, land masses and topography.
Weather
short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a paticular location, at a particular time.
Wind belts
wind systems blow from belts of high pressure toward adjacent low-pressure belts. Because of Earth's rotation, wind belts don't blow directly north or south, but sideways in giant spirals.
Pressure zones
Atmospheric pressure is the force, or weight, of the atmosphere which presses down on the Earth's surface. A barometer is a device that measures air pressure; a common unit of measurement is pounds per square inch, or psi. Temperature and altitude affect air pressure. At sea level, the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi. Differences in heating and motion of the atmosphere create the difference in pressure. Where cold air masses descend, they create high pressure regions. Where warm air masses are rising, they create low pressure systems. An air mass rises if its temperature is increased because the density of warm air is less than that of the surrounding cooler air.
High pressure regions are areas where the atmospheric pressure is higher than that of the surrounding regions.
Interactions of air masses and fronts
sunlight heats the earth's surface, warm ground & water heat the surrounding air, uneven heating creates air masses, large bodies of air, at different temperatures and atmospheric pressures & the boundiers between air masses are called fronts.
How do storms form?
When a cold air moves into a warm air...cold front forms.
Changes in weather from seasons to seasons:
The areas between the tropics & the poles, the amount of heat received from the sun varies greatly during the year because the earth tilts on its axis as it orbits the sun...the variation causes the seasons: summer, fall, winter, & spring, the seasons north of the equator are opposite of the seasons south of the equator.
How do oceans affect climate?
They warm the land near the coast in winter & cool it in summer. they also add moisture or humidity to the air which causes it to rain more than drier places .
Why do we see our breath on a cold day but not on a warm day?
Water has three phases: liquid, gas, and solid. Water vapor is the gas phase, and ice is the solid phase. What you are seeing when you
see your breath, little droplets of water condensing out of a gas that's in your lungs. When we head outside on a cold day, water molecules (the vapor) in our breath lose the energy that, when they're warm, keeps them moving.
Weather Maps
maps providing overall picture of weather activity across Earth collected from weather stations.
Isobar
line drawn on a weather map connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure.
Isotherm
line drawn on a weather map that connects points having equal temperature.
Origin of the Earth
precambrian, formed about 4.6 billion years ago and was dated with radioisotope clocks; no fossil evidence of life for the 1st 1 billion yrs
Paleontology
the science studying former life through fossils.
The rock record:
rocks that currently exist and their geologic process.
Geologic time scale
scale used by paleontologists to represent evolutionary time.
Stars
Its a burning, hot sphere of gases.
Galaxies
a massive grouping of stars, gas and dusts in space.
Solar System
system made up of the nine unique planets, including earth, and many smaller objects, that orbit the sun.
Planets
a ball of gas that orbits the sun in order they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune: largest distance from sun & years in Earth.
Why do the planets circle the Sun?
Newton theory of universal gravitation: all objects in the universe are attracted to each other by the force of gravity; the sun gravity attracts the planets & other bodies in the solar system & prevents them from flying off into space.
How does a solar eclispe occur?
the blocking of sunlight to earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and earth.
How are the inner planets of the solar system different from the outer planets?
Innermost: Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars composed of rocky & metallic materials; Outermost: Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune composed of hydrogen, helium, and ices of ammonia & methane.( Jupiter-hydrogen gas)
Earth: orbits, rotations, tilt, & cycles
fifth largest planet, orbits the sun once each year, rotates on its axis 365 days, tilt 23 degrees, spins on its axis once every 24 hours
Sun
a giant ball of hot gas gives off light and heat; closest to Earth.
Moon
the natural satellite of the Earth, orbits Earth revolution once in 29 1/2 days (12hrs.), satellite of Earth.
What causes the seasons of the earth?
Tilt of Earth on its axis.
What is the positional relationship of the Sun and Earth at each season?
the elliptical pattern that the Earth follows as it revolves about the sun.
Motions of heavens
Stars, Sun, Moon, and Planets.
Why do stars appear to move across the sky each night, although the pattern of stars stays the same?
The stars appear to move, but it is actually just our location on the Earth that is moving (west to east). Any actual "motion" of the stars is too
small to detect because of the huge distances involved; because earth rotates on its axis.
Why are different stars seen in different seasons?
There are two major motions affecting the Earth: its rotation around its axis, and its rotation around the Sun (which we call 'revolution'). While the rotation of the Earth on its axis causes the nightly movement of the stars across the sky, the revolution is responsible for the fact that we can see different parts of the sky at different parts of the year.
Why does the position of a planet as seen from Earth change in relation to background of stars?
They change position against the background of the distant stars because they are much closer to us, and they are orbiting around the sun, as are we.
Why do stars twinkle while planets do not?
Stars twinkle because of turbulence in the atmosphere of the Earth. As the atmosphere churns, the light from the star is refracted in different directions. This causes the star's image to change slightly in brightness and position, hence "twinkle." Planets do not twinkle they have finite size; the size of a planet on the sky in a sense "averages out" the turbulent effects of the atmosphere, presenting a relatively stable image to the eye.
Comets
large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits.
Meteors
"shooting stars" or "falling stars"; bun up.
Meteorites
meteors that don't burn up completely can fall through the atmosphere & land on Earth.
Meteoroids
small rocklike objects that move from outer space into Earth's atmosphere.
Cells: basic structure and function
the second of the cell theory.
Are most cells flat? What do electron-microscope pictures show us about cell shape?
Cells come in a variety of shapes depending on what the function of the cell is; there are an infinite number of cells on the planet so it is nearly impossible to tell; Cells are usually not flat. They are flattened when we prepare them for optical microscope slides. There have been plenty of electron microscope pictures of various cells from the human body -- a good example would be the donut-shaped red blood cell, which is definitely not flat.
Cell processes
taking in nutrients, giving off wastes, growing,and reproducing.
Photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars; special leaf structures called chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll is a green substance that captures energy from the sun.
What makes a plant bend toward the light? What is the scientific term associated with this?
a green substance that captures energy from the sun; chlorophyll.
Why roots, stems, and leaves important to plants?
Stems are the plant support system...they hold leaves up to mthe light and keepmfruits and flowers attached also a food & water highway; roots are the plants anchors...hold the plant firmly in the ground, absorbers...tiny hair take in water & minerals from the soil, and roots supply storage; leaves are the plants food factory.
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
Active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy.
Transpiration
the process by which water evaporates from a plant's leaves.
Respiration
the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain; plant burns sugar to norish itself & carbon dioxide is released.
Human organs and organ systems
muscle thyat performs a particular function in the human body;group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
How does the human circulatory system work?
The human body system that contians the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells.
How does the human digestive system work?
breaks down food and absorbs nutrients; removes wastes.
Sexual reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
Asexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
Growth & Development
the process of an individual organism growing organically; act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining.
Patterns of inheritance of traits (gentics)
is the field of biology devoted to understanding how characterstics are transmitted from parents to offspring; heredity.
What are dominant and recessive traits?
Traits that always show in a person even if only one gene of the pair is inherited for the trait; traits that typically do not show in a person unless both genes for the trait are inherited.
How can both of my parents have brown eyes and I have blue eyes?
Look at the genes.
Molecular basis of heredity (DNA, Genes, Chromosome)
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics; the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein; threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
Life cycle
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
Responses to external stimuli
Signals coming from outside of your body; sights, smells, sounds, tastes, touches
results in incentive motivation.
Controlling the internal environment
the environment that includes the elements within the organization's boundaries.
Instinctual behaviors such as migration, hibernation, living in societies.
fixed action patterns; movement from one place to another; a period of inactivity that some animals experience in winter that allows them to survive on stored body fat.
Conditioned behavior
a behavioral response learned by experience.
Unity and diversity
Animals/plants in one group show great diversity. All living things show unity and diversity.
Adaptation
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest.
What is meant by "survival of the fittest"?
Only those individuals best adapted to current conditions survive and reproduce.
Extinction
no longer in existence.
Will humans always be present on Earth?
...
Poulations
a group of organisisms of one specises that interbread & live in the same place and time.
Communities
populations of different kinds of organisms that live in the same place at the same time.
Ecosystems
a collection of living things and the environment in which they live. Decomposers break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem.
Food chain
(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member; one interaction.
What happens if certain kinds of organisms, such as edible plants, are introduced or removed from a food chain?
Plant eaters run out of food. They must move on or strave. When too many plant-eating animals (herbivores - primary consumers) are in an ecosystem, they eat plants more quickly than new plants can grow. Carnivores (meat-eating animals) are attracted by herivores. The meat eaters prey on the number plant eaters. When the number of herivores declines, so does the number of carivores. Omnivores eat both meat and plants.
Food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains; several interactions. Ecology the study of the relationship between organisms and their habitat.
How do food chains become food webs?
The simple food chain from grass seed to cat joins with other food chains to form a network, or food web.
Growth and regulation of populations
Addition of individuals to the population over time; births minus deaths. Hard to figure because some individuals may migrate in and out; (1) disease, (2) cancer, (3) global warming, (4) famine.
Physical properties of matter
how matter is described according to physical characteristics; characteristics that can be observed without changing the substance into something else; ex. luster, Color, Odor, Shape, Hardness, Texture, Density, Volume, Mass, Weight.
Solids
have a definite size and shape or volume; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern
Liquids
have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid.
Gases
no definite size, volume or shape; a gas will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid; a state of matter.
Does air take up space?
yes
Conservation of Matter
in any chemical reaction matter changes form; it is neither created nor destroyed.
Matter/Properties
that which has mass and occupies space; color, hardness, size, shape, and odor.
Physical change of matter
a change that does not change the identity of the substance EX. freezing, cutting something;, change between solid/liquid/gas.
Chemical change of matter
a change that results in the formation of a different substance EX. burning wood; , identity of a substance does change and NEW substance forms; ex: rusting, digesting, decomposing.
Sometimes when two chemicals are combined, a chemical reaction takes place. What are some of the signs of such a chemical reaction?
formation of a precipitate, change in color, formation of gas, increase or decrease in temperature/heat.
Mixtures
two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Solutions
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; has a solvent & solute.
Atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
Protons
positively charged particles located in the nucleus of a atom.
Neutons
subatomic particle inside the nucleus with no electrical charge.
Electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus.
Elements
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
What is the periodic table and what information does it contain?
A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
Molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Compounds
combination of 2 or more elements; made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions.
Chemical notation for molecules
CO2
Simple chemical equations
C + O = CO
Types of motion
Linear motion (gliding), Angular motion, Rotation. Motion is a change in position of an object.
Speed
the rate or measure of the rate of motion.
Distance
the property created by the space between two objects or points.
Time relationships
the way things move and don't move and how they relate to one another.
Acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change.
Are the hands of a clock accelerating?
Any object when has a change in it's motion is accelerating, regardless of speed. Acceleration is a measure of the rate of change of velocity. Whenever the velocity changes, there's an acceleration.
Circular motion
motion in a circle caused by a resultant force acting towards the centre of the circle
Realtive motion
dependent on the direction and rate of motion.
When you are driving side by side with another car, why does the other car appear to be not moving, even though
it is moving with the same speed as your car?
It appears to be standing still because with respect to your frame of reference (your car) it is not moving. This assumes that your car and the other one are not moving at, or near, the speed of light. (Relative speed/motion)
Forces laws of motion
pushes or pulls between objects; Newton wanted to understand the laws of nature here on earth and came up with the Laws of motion.
Inertia- An object will remain at rest or in a sraight line motion at constant speed unless a force acts on it.
example; the box stopped because of "friction". An object in motion stays in motion an object at rest stays at rest.
Law of interaction-when a force acts on an object the object will accelerate. The rate of acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Law of reaction; For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Forces act in pairs.
Newton's law of motion
Fisrt Law: Law of Inertia, a moving object will resist any change in velocity, & a resisting object will resist any change to begin moving.
Second Law: Force= Mas X Acceleration, F = ma, The force of object in motion is equal to the mass of the object and the acceleration of the object, Defined in terms of newtons (N).
Third Law: Greater force must be applied to create movement, a reaction force is generated when another force is applied to an object, & the greater force will determine if movement is to occur.
What causes an object in motion to accelerate or slow down?
When a force acts on an object that is stationary or not moving, the force will cause the object to move, provided there are no other forces preventing that movement. If you throw a ball, you are pushing on it to start its movement. If you drop an object, the force of gravity causes it to move. If an object is initially stationary, it accelerates when it starts to move. Acceleration is the change in velocity over a period of time. The object is going from v = 0 to some other speed or velocity.

Likewise, if an object is already moving and a force is applied in the same direction, the object will speed up or accelerate. For example, a gust of wind can speed up a saliboat.
Friction
a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
Centripetal force/Centrifugal force
any force that causes an object to move in a circular path; pulls the object inward. Pushes an object outward that is moving in a circular direction.
Newton's law of gravitation
the force of gravity between two objects increases with the mass of the objects and decreases with the distance between them squared.
What is the difference betwen weight and mass?
Mass is a measurement of how much matter is in an object; weight is a measurement of how hard gravity is pulling on that object. Your mass is the same wherever you are--on Earth, on the moon, floating in space--because the amount of stuff you're made of doesn't change. But your weight depends on how much gravity is acting on you at the moment; you'd weigh less on the moon than on Earth, and in interstellar space you'd weigh almost nothing at all.
Equilibrium
a state of balance between opposing forces.
Describe various ways in which an object can have several forces acting on it and still be at rest.
Yes, there are always forces acting upon things, even when at rest (although all motion is relative so nothing is really "at rest"). There are some that are visible to the naked eye. For example, wind and corrosion. There are also forces that are not visible to the naked eye. Like the forces that make the electrons spin around the nucleus, the forces that hold the object together, etc....
Forms of energy
potential and kinetic
Potential energy
stored energy an object has due to its position; do work (objects that can burn) A rock poised at the top of a hill or water stored behind a dam are examples.
Kinetic energy
the energy an object has do to its motion (moving); energy contained in moving objects such as a rock rolling down a hill the wind blowing through the trees or water flowing over a dam.
How is the energy of a rock sitting on top of a hill different fro the energy of a rock sitting at the bottom of the same hill?
There is no difference in the energy of the rock at the top of the hill and the energy of the rock at the bottom of the hill. There is a difference in the energy stored in the gravitational field, but not the rock.
Transfer and conservation energy
the same form of energy moving from one object to another object, occurs when one object gives some or all of its energy to another object; energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Why does rubbing your hands together make them warmer?
When objects like your hands come in contact and move against each other, they produce friction. Friction happens when you overcome the resistance of one object rubbing against the other.
How does the energy associated with a bicycle change as it speeds up going downhill?
The potential energy (energy of position) is converted to kinetic energy (energy of movement).
Simple machines
a machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work (there are 6: lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw).
Lever
has straight parts that move when a certain force is applied.
Pulley
involves a string wrapped around a wheel.
Wheel & axel
a wheel with a rod in the center.
Inclined plane
consisting of a flat surface with one end higher than the other; ramp.
Wedge
something solid that is usable as an inclined plane (shaped like a V) that can be pushed between two things to separate them.
Screw
simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post.
Wave phenomena
waves in water--slow down, sound waves--vibratory changes in the air that carry sound.frequency of cycles*The rate of vibration of sound waves; determines pitch, & earthquake waves--the shock waves created at the focus of an earthquake and sent out in all directions through the earth.
Electromagnetic spectrum
the complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency.
Light waves/Water waves
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum; are up and down movements in which the surface of water rises & falls (caused by wind, earthquakes, & tides).
Nonvisible waves
Infrared, Radio, Microwaves, X-rays, & Gamma ray
Radio waves/Infrared waves
electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies; the next longest wavelengths after light waves.
Microwaves/Waves
Radio waves with the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies; used for cooking and communication; rhythmic disturbances that carry energy.
Gamma rays/X-rays
electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies; have some of the shortest waves in the spectrum.
How do electromagnetic waves differ from sound waves and water waves? What is an example of how each of the
nonvisible waves is used in day-to-day life?
Electromagnetic are transverse waves that travel at the speed of light in a vacuum.
Light and color
is energy thaat acts on our eyes; without light we could not see.
Why do we see an apple as being red?
The human eye and brain together translate light into color. Light receptors within the eye transmit messages to the brain, which produces the familiar sensations of color.
Mirrors and lenses
not transparent , light waves bounce back or reflect off; tranparent so light waves pass through it;any shinny surface, is the best tool for reflecting light.
Why does a mirror reflect light while a lens lets it pass through?
A mirror is a reflective surface. Light passes through the glass and hits the silver
backing, reflecting off of it. (The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.) A lens, on the other hand, does not reflect light; it refracts it. After entering the
glass, light refracts differently depending on the shape of the lens and also
creates a focal point where the refracting light comes to a point. This differs for
different lenses -- convex or concave -- which is why there are different lenses for
different types of eyeglasses.
Which types of lenses magnify and which types produce an image reduced in size?
Convex lenses form real images and concave lenses form virtual images. But there is one case in which convex lens also forms virtual images. This is when object is placed between Principal Focus "F" and Optical Centre "O"
How do lenses help nearsighted and farsighted people?
Convex are thicker in the middle and thin out at the edges. These lenses magnify and are used for reading glasses and to correct long-sightedness (hyperopia).
Concave lenses are thin in the middle and thick towards the edges. These lenses shrink things and are used to correct short-sightedness (myopia).
A good example of this is to take a spoon and look at your reflection in it. Looking at the concave side of the spoon (the front) will make you look smaller, looking at the convex side of the spoon (the back) will make you look bigger.
Heat and temperature
Heat is a measure of the energy in a system
Temperature - A measure of how molecules are moving.
Temperature scales:
Fahrenheit - The temperature scale used in the United States.
Celsius - Most Widely used; water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 degrees celsius
Kelvin - Used by scientist; Begins with absolute zero (0K)
Absolute Zero - The lowest possible temperature; no molecular movement; 0 Kelvin or 273 o
How a thermometer works?
It is filled with a liquid which expands as it gets hot and contracts as it gets cooler.
HEAT TRANSFER
Heat can be transferred three ways:
Conduction ; Heat transfer by direct contact
Convection : heat transfer in liquids and gases ; As you heat gases or liquids, they expand, become less dense and rise. Cooler air will come in to replace it.
Radiation - Transfer of heat through empty space.
Conductors and Insulators
Conductors - Materials such as metals that transmit heat readily
Insulators - Materials such as glass, plastics, wood, and down transmit heat poorly.
Heat by conduction, convection, & radiation
The transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially the transmission of electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself; Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another; Emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form of rays or waves.
Electricity and magnetism
the flow of electrons through a conductor to create energy; the property of some objects, like iron, aluminum, nickel and cobalt, which allows them to attract other magnetic objects to themselves like poles repel; opposite poles attract.
How does an electrical circuit work?
An unbroken path formed by electrical conductors through which electricity can flow.
How does a compass work?
The needle of a compass is a freely-rotating magnet, which aligns itself with the earth's natural magnetic field, and pointing in the same direction as the field.
Ways that electric energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion?
Heat: by using steam turbines. Water is boiled and turns to steam, the expanding steam turns a turbine, which drives a generator.
; Light: Light energy is converted into heat energy when plants take in sunlight (light energy) and convert it into heat energy when they respire and produce energy; Motion: Rub a ballon.
Name some appliances that can convert electrical energy, light energy, and energy in motion.
Stove/Oven, Light Bulb, Blenders/Electric Beaters.
Sound
Vibrations transmitted through an elastic solid or a liquid or gas, with frequencies in the approximate range of 20 to 20,000 hertz, capable of being detected by human organs of heating.
Why do we hear sound that accompanies a lighting strike later than we see the flash of light? What are echoes and what causes them?
Echoes are sound waves that can bounce off (reflect) objects which have smooth surfaces.
How are control variables and experimental variables used in scientific investigations?
The experimental variable (also know as the intendant variable) is the part of an experiment we change each time we repeat the test.
For example, if you were measuring the time it takes for a substance to react in different acids, the variable we would change would be the type of acid.
The control variable is a part of the experiment which basically gives you a value to compare your other results to.
Using the same example, you may do a test to see how long it takes for the substance to react in water. You could then compare this to the rest of your results for the reactions with the acids.
How do different questions require different approaches and tools in the investigation stage?
The independent variable the item being tested in the experiment, it is intentionally changed by the experimenter. Dependent variable the item being measured in the experiment, it is directly affected by the independent variable. Constant one or more factors associated with the experiment that do not change or not allowed to vary throughjout the procedure. Control the part of the experiment that is used as a comparsionfor one independent variable, it is unchanged from its normal circumstances. Repeated trails the number of specimens on which the same experiment is performed.
How do mathematics and technology assist in different kinds of scientific inquiry?
SI - conducting investigations and looking for explanations to questions about the physical world.
What are some examples of measuring instruments?
Observation/Research, Hypothesis, Perdiction, Experimentation, & Conclusion.
How does "skepticism" relate to scientific inquiry?
Skepticism is an honest search for knowledge. t is an approach to claims akin to the scientific method. It is a powerful and positivemethodology (a collection of methods of inquiry) that is used to evaluate claims and make decisions. It is used to search for the (provisional) truth in matters and to make decisions that are based on sound reasoning, logic, and evidence. Skepticism is based on a simple method: doubt and inquiry. The idea is to neither initially accept claims nor dismiss them; it's about questioning them and testing them for validity. Only after inquiry does a skeptic take a stance on an issue.
How do ethics relate to scientific inquiry?
Science is a discipline of knowledge which involves many aspects of human thought and endeavour. Ethics is concerned with human character and conduct.
What ways other than the inquiry process have led to important new scientific ideas or discoveries?
Inquiry is an interactive process that actively engages students in learning in meaningful ways. The process of inquiry is characterized by interactive, student-centered activities focused on questioning, exploring, and posing explanations. The goal of inquiry is to help students gain a better understanding of the world around them through active engagement in real-life experiences. The process of inquiry not only enhances students' understanding of natural phenomena, but also develops students' science process skills. It is a nonlinear variation of the scientific method. Composed of the same basic components, both the scientific method and the inquiry process require students to conduct research investigations by formulating a question, developing a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, recording data, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions.
Nutrition
The process of nourishing or being nourished, especially the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues.
Exercise and fitness
activity that requires physical or mental exeortion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness; good health or physical condition, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.
How does physical fitness help a person?
•Control your weight
•Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease
•Reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome
•Reduce your risk of some cancers
•Strengthen your bones and muscles
•Improve your mental health and mood
•Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult
•Increase your chances of living longer
Safety and well-being
the condition of being safe, freedom from danger, risk, or injury; the state of being healthy, happy, or properous/welfare.
Communicable diseases
disease that can be transmitted from one person to another.
In what ways can infection spread?
By contact, airborne-route, fecal-oral route, sexual contact, direct inoculation, and vehicle or vector.
Substance abuse
the addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs; overindulgence.
How do drugs, alcohol, tobacco affect the body?
Drugs are chemicals that change the way your brain and body work. Drugs can be swallowed, inhaled, smoked, or injected. Whichever way you take drugs, they end up in your blood and go to all parts of your body. Alcohol can cause short-term and long-term damage to your body (brain, heart, stomach, liver, & reproductive system. Tobacco affect the body by the brain, mouth, heart, lungs, skin, & muscle.
How are prescription medicines and over-the-counter medicines different?
A drug is a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Prescripton: Prescribed by a doctor,Bought at a pharmacy, & Prescribed for and intended to be used by one person. Over-the-Counter: Drugs that do NOT require a doctor's prescription & Bought off-the-shelf in stores.
Common diseases, viral and bacterial causes, how vaccinations work?
Vaccines help a body's immune system prepare in advance to fight infectious illnesses and potentially deadly diseases caused by infectious agents or their by-products. Essentially, vaccines give the body a preview of a bacterium, virus, or toxin allowing it to learn how to defend itself against that potential invader in advance. If the body is ever infected by that particular pathogen after the vaccine has done its work, the body's immune system is ready.
Technology design
Design and Technology is the study of the production of man-made objects. •Must be for a recognized purpose that will solve human needs.
•Can be products, systems or environments.
•Must use acceptable scientific principles, materials technology and human resources.
•Must be suitable for use by more than one person or be used in quantities.
(not a single item for personal use)
Science links with technology
Science is the investigation of nature; technology is how we get things done. Technology, when used appropriately, can help make science classroom a site of active learning and critical thinking, furthering student inquiry and connections with the materials.
Acid rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
Greenhouse effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earths surface.
The "Science-Technology-Society" (S-T-S)
provides an interdisciplinary approach to the social, historical, ethical, philosophical, legal, and policy implications of scientific research, engineering, health, and medicine.
What can a community do about air pollution or water pollution?
Limit use of gas-powered lawnmowers, Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden, Compost your yard waste instead of burning it, If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, make sure it meets standards, Be energy efficient, and Plant trees! Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution.
What should a worker do if he or she finds food is being handled in unsafe ways in the workplace?
Make a report of the condition to your supervisor or the DOHS.
Is lead in drinking water dangerous? If so, what should a family do?
Yes, seek medical advice. Lead in drinkig water is extremely dangerous and may lead to lasting medical consequences. These include damage of the nervous system, slow growth, hearing problems, and headaches. If it is in your city water contact the local government.
Galileo
Italin astronmer & mathematician; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telscope that enabled him to make discoveries.
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun, disrupting the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
Darwin
Britih naturalist who revolutionized the study of biology with his theory of evolution based on natural selection. (Origin of Species/The Descent of Man)
Nucleus
the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located.
ER (Endoplasmic Rectculum)
tubes where cell substances are made.
Cell membrane
controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; Outer wall.
Nuclear membrane
controls the movement of materials in and out of the nuclues; Inner wall.
Golgi bodies
assemble, release, and store chemicals.
Ribosomes
make proteins.
Cytoplasm
substance which holds all other parts in suspension within the cell.
Mitochondria
the "powerhouse" of the cell; the site of energy production and release.
Lyosomes
eat up waste materials.
Vacuoles
store water.
Cell wall
give shape and support to plant cells.
Chloroplasts
contain chlorophyll (green pigment) which traps sunlight to help make food --- photosynthesis.
Animal Cells
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, small temporary vacuole, & stored food---oil droplets, glycogen-animal starch.
Plant Cells
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, chloroplast, large permanent vacuole, & cellulose cell wall---thick, firm, protective layer.
Phototropism/Geotropism
growth of plants stem towards the sunlight; is the growth of roots downwards, towards gravity.
Ligaments
connective tissues that bind bones or cartilage together.
Tendons
are connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
Cartilage
a tough, elastic tissue that can withstand pressure.
Muscles
cells and tissues that allow movements of an organ or body part.
Skeletal muscle
attached to bones and allows voluntaey (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs.
Smooth muscle
found in the internal organs and aids involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems.
Cardiac muscle
forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system.
Cornea
transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil.
Pupil
small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters.
Iris
the colored muscles in the eye.
Lens
bends the rays of light to focus them on the retina.
Retina
lines the back wall of th eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells.
Dominant trait
traits people can see that you have; a dominat gene overpowers a recessive gene.
Recessive trait
traits you may have, but people cannot see because they are not expressed.
Mitosis
two step process by which all body cells of multi-cellular organisms multiply.
Anemia/Hemophilia
lack of red blood cells in the blood; lack of platelets, which help the blood to clot.
Pancreas
gland behind the stomach that functions in both the endocrine (secrete hormones directly into the blood stream) and digestive system.
Reflex/Instinctive behavior
automatic response to a stimuli; inborn response to stimuli.
Mass/Weight/Density
the amount of matter in an object, size, & all matter has mass and takes up space; the force of the earth's gravity which pulls down on an object; amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume. Density is the relative heaviness of an object.
Organisms
take in energy and give off waste, grow/develop, adjust to their environment, respond to their surroundings, reproduce themselves, & are made up of cells.
Five Kingdoms:
Animal many-celled organisms can't make their own food (mammal, birds, reptiles, fish, insects). Plant many-celled organisms make their food through photosythesis (flowering plants, trees, mosses, ferns). Fungi have no chlorophyll to make their own food (mold, mildews, rusts, yeasts, mushrooms). Protists mostly one-cell microrganisms including plant/animal like organisms (algae, amoebas, paramecia) has true nucleus. Monera microscopic one-celled organisms, no nucleus, absorb their food (bacteria & blue-green algae).
Invertebrate/Vertebrates
animals without backbones & exoskelton protect soft inner bodies (worms, jellyfish, clams, snails, spiders, & bettles); with backbones different species (fish, amphibians, reptiles--cold-blooded temperature depend on surroundings--carnivore/herbivore, birds-- carnivore/herbivore, & mammals--warm-blooded temperature remains the same no matter surroundings; carnivores, herbivores, & omnivores).
Metamorphosis/Fragmentation
change take place--butterflies; reproduce by splitting in two---flat-worms.
Leaves, Stems, Roots
part of the plant where most of the food is made; hold up the rest of the plant, and have tubes that carry water and food between the leaves and the roots; anchor plants in the ground and bring in minerals and water from the soil.
Biomes
are large areas of environment that share the same general climate of temperature and rainfall. Grassland: farming & grazing (prairies, savannas, steppes). Deserts temperature varies hot/cold, Tropical rain Forests warm wet near or at the equator, & Tundra are cold no trees.
Hibernation
heartbeats, breathing, and other bodily functions slown down, the body hardly moves, and the body burns its stored fat to survive.
Continental Drift Theory
The belief that all the continents on Earth were originally connected in a single "super continent", leaving ocean basins between them. This theory suggests that the continents are still slowly "drifting" .
Rock
heterogeneous and is made up of aggregates of more than one kind of different minerals.
Thermosphere
51-85 km, the highest layer. The air is thin, radiant energy from the sun warms the air. The lower part is the ionosphere, which has electrically charged particles useful for transmitting radio waves. The upper part called the exosphere, which extends into outer space. The air is so thin, that some of its molescules escape into outer space
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