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Earth Science

The height, length and period of a wave depend upon _________.

the wind speed, the length of time the wind has blown, and the fetch.

A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a ________.


The daily tidal range is GREATEST during ______ tide.


How can crashing, collapsing storm waves generate explosive forces and stresses on rocky outcrops and manmade structures?

Pressurized water and compressed air are driven into cracks and fissures

The Sun Moon and Earth form a right triangle in space...

neap tides

The ________ is the distance the wind has traveled aross the water.


As a deep water wave enters shallow water, the wave slows down and rotates toward being parallel with the shoreline. This process is known as the _______.


Draw a diagram of a view of a non-breaking ocean wave.

(a)=[wavelength] (b)=[trough] (c)=[wave movement??] (d)=[wave height] (e)=[crest]

What type of current is this (see diagram)

longshore or beach drift?

Draw a diagram of these shoreline features.

A. tombolo B. wave-cut cliff C. spit D. baymouth bar

Currents within the surf zone that flow parallel to the shore are known as ________ currents.


A ridge zone that connects an island to a mainland or to another island is a(n) _______.


Low and narrow offshore ridges of sand that parallel the coast are called ________.

barrier islands

Structures called ________ are built parallel to the shoreline to protect boats from the force of large breaking waves.

break water

A barrier built at a right angle to the beach for the purpose of trapping sand that is moving parallel to the shore is called a(n) ________.


When caves on opposite sides of a headland unite, a(n) ________ results.

sea arch

What term denotes a sand bar built across the former mouth of an estuary, separating it from the open sea?

baymouth bar

Large circular-moving currents of water within an ocean basin are called ________.


lowest high tides and highest low tides of the month are

neap tides

highest high tides and lowest low tides of the month are

spring tides

Sun, Moon, and Earth are aligned in Space

spring tides

Which does not fit?
A. wave-cut cliff B. wave-cut platform C. sea arch D. spit


Which does not belong?

A. sea stack B. bar C. tombolo D. barrier island

a.sea stack

Which does not belong?

A. breakwater B. groin C. seawall D. beach nourishment

d.beach nourishment

Which does not belong?
A. spring tide B. flood tide C. neap tide D. tidal flat

d.tidal flat?

Erosional retreat of a ________ leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the inland direction.

wave-cut cliff

Large estuaries are more common on a _______ coastline.


An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a ________.

sea stack

A flat, bench-like surface cut in rocks across the coast is known as a _______.

wave-cut platform

Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?


Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?

all of these or seawall, groin, beach nourishment

Which of the following is a tidal current?

flood and ebb

The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ___________.

prevailing winds

A poleward-moving ocean current is ________.


Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ______ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.


Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?

none of these: wave particles move in an almost circular motion; waves do not occur in the open ocean; such waves are called waves of oscillation

Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of the water is ________.

equal to one-half of the wave length.

The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed __________.

long-shore current

The presence of which one of the following would indicate that land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen?

elevated marine terrace

Which one of the following is created by wave erosion?

sea arch

Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are _____________________.

excellent examples of large estuaries; former river valleys that were flooded by a rise in sea level; associated with a submergent coast;

The movement of sand parallel to the shore __________.

is achieved by longshore currents; is created by waves approaching at oblique angles; may create spits;

One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ___________

on headlands projecting into the water

The zig-zag movement of sand grains along a beach is ___________

both a and b: caused by obliquely breaking waves and called a beach drift

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