Terms in this set (49)
1. everything that is made up of tiny particles. 2. particles traveled from crowded area to less crowded areas. 3 the movement of particles from areas of high density to areas of low density
What is diffusion of water?
cells are surrounded by and filled with fluids are mostly made of water.
is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
what concentration of density does pure water has?
highest density of water molecules
what lowers the density of water molecules?
adding salt, food coloring
membrane that allows certain substances to pass through
osmosis is important to what cell functions?
Red blood cells and plants
How is osmosis is important for red blood cells functioning?
osmosis controls the concentration of particles such as water, salt and other particles. Otherwise the redblood cells would be in pure water and would not be able to survive (blow up)
How is osmosis important for plants?
it allows the plant to take water and make the plant firm and to grow
what is active transport?
energy is required to move particles from lower to higher density.
No energy is used or needed to move particles from higher density to lower density (such as in diffusion and osmosis)
What are channels?
are passageway across the cell membranes that small particles (such as sugar) can cross the cell membranes .
how cell membrane surrounds a particles and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell
is when a cell releases a particles by enclosing it in a vesicle that moves the particles outside of the cell
the process by which plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and to make food for plant cells. the plant cells absorbed the light energy that gives them their pigments or color
what is the main pigments used in photosynthesis
main food made during photosynthesis
Glucose allows plants to do what?
to convert the sun's energy into energy that can be strored.
what is the process used in photosynthesis
carbon dioxide plus water plus light energy to glucose to oxygen
a chemical process that occurs in cells; such as releasing carbon dioxide as a waste product
what type of energy used to breakdown food in animal cells which is different from breathing?
Breathing supplies what to the cells?
oxygen needed for cellular respiration to remove carbon dioxide
what happens during cellular respiration?
food is broken down into CO2 and H2O to release energy in animals. most of the energy is used to form ATP
what is ATP is used to supplies what?
energy that fuels cell activities
how does respiration takes place in prokaryotic cells?
in the cells membrane
The energy that forms during cellular respiration is called?
respiration in eukaryotic cells takes place
what is the connection between photosynthesis and Respiration.
photosynthesis used CO2 to release Oxygen and cellular respiration uses Oxygen to carbon dioxide
when cells do not use oxygen to breakdown food
what is the process called when cells can't get oxygen for cellular respiration?
they used fermentation
what are the cell cycles
1. copying Dna (interphase) chromosomes are copied to make 2 chromatids
mitosis phase 1
phase 1 begins the nuclear membrane dissolves, chromosomes condense into rodlike structures.
mitosis phase 2
are called methaphase- chromosomes line up along is the equator of the cell. homologous chromosomes pair up.
Mitosis phase 3
is called anaphase- the chromatids separate and move to the other side of the cell
mitosis phase 4
telophase-a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes and the chromosomes unwind- mitosis is complete.
In what phase is mitosis completed in how many phase.
list the phases of mitosis
interphase (DNA) , prophrase (mitosis begins nuclear membrane dissolves), metaphase (chromosomes line up to pair up) anaphase (chromatids separate and telophase- nuclear membrane is formed
cells that lack a cell wall. the cells pinches in two. cells that have a cell walls forms between the two new cells
are bacteria which have ribosomes and a single cicular dna molecule
what are cell division in bacteria called?
binary fission results in 2 cells where each has one copy of the circular DNA
DNA of Eukaryotic cells
are more complex. more dna, has different types of eukoryotes, different numbers of chromosomes
how many chromosomes does human have?
46 and they are all paired
similar chromosomes that are paired are called
how many stages does Eukaryotic cells have?
what is the 1st stage of the eukaryotic cells
intertphase the cell grows and copies its organelles plus chromosomes. they are called chromatids and are held together in a region called the centromere.
2nd stage of the eukaryotic cells
the chromatids separate and mitosis begins which divided into 4 phases
3rd stage of eukaryotic cells
the cells split into 2 identical cells
in eukaryotic cell do not have cell walls
where does division takes place in eukaryotic cells
division of the cytoplasm begins at the cell membrane, the cells binds into 2 identical cells
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