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Praxis 2 Social Studies Study Guide

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Physical map
contains labels for countries and capital cities, as well as major physical features like plains, rivers,
Topographical map
the shape of the earth's surface is shown by contour lines; contour lines are imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level on the land's surface.
Political map
identifies continents and countries according to their political ideals.
Weather map
depicts the meteorological conditions over a specific geographic area at a specific time.
Aerial photograph
a photograph of an area on earth taken from an aircraft flying overhead.
Satellite image
image of a larger region on earth taken by a satellite orbiting in space.
Mercator map projection
accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.
Equal-area map
shows correct size of land masses, but usually distorts their shapes.
Robinson map
a useful overall picture of the world; keeps correct size and shape of most continents and oceans,
Azimuthal map
true compass direction, usually circular, distorts scale, area and shape; usually used to show areas
Longitude
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance east or west of the prime meridian. The prime
Latitude
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance north or south of the equator. The equator is an
The International Dateline
an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole between Russia and
Continents
are great divisions of land on the globe; the large part of the surface of the earth that rises above sea
Oceans
are the largest bodies of salt water between the continents; there are 5 oceans
Seas
are large bodies of salt water; smaller than oceans.
Rivers
are large, natural streams of fresh water.
Bays
bodies of water, smaller than a gulf and nearly surrounded by land.
Mountain ranges
rows or chains of mountains. For example, the Himalayas
Plateau
a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land; at least one side has a steep slope.
Valley
an elongated depression in the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains.
Plains
an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
Ice cap
a region which is covered by perennial ice and snow; a large glacier forming on an extensive area of
Tundra
a level and rolling treeless plain in artic and sub-artic regions with black mucky soil with permanently
Forest
- a large, thick growth of trees and underbrush.
Grassland
a large area of land covered with grasses.
Desert
a large, dry, barren region.
Island
an area of land which is completely surrounded by water.
7 continents
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. The largest is Asia.
5 Oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Artic and Antarctic (Southern). The largest is the Pacific.
Major Seas
Mediterranean, Sea of Japan, Arabian, Black, Red, East China, South China, Caribbean, Bering
Major Rivers
Africa: Nile (world's longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria
Major Mountain ranges
Asia: Himalaya - largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and
Arab world
name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula; now used also for populations
Africa
- with 56 countries, the second-largest continent (after Asia), located south of Europe and bordered to the
North Africa
The Islamic states of North Africa became free during the 1950's and the 1960's.
Sub-Saharan Africa
consists of the African countries located south of the Sahara desert.
Apartheid
extreme racial segregation was practiced by the white minority who controlled the government.
Latin America
Spanish or Portuguese-speaking nations south of the U.S.
The Caribbean
he Caribbean Sea is in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by the West Indies to the north and east, South
North America
third largest continent, comprising Mexico, the United States, Canada and Central America:
Mexico
Mexico's northern border is the United States, to the west, the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Gulf of
United States
Country with a Constitution-based Federal Republic with a strong democratic tradition.
Central America
the southern most part of the North American continent, lying between Mexico and South
Western Europe
Western European democratic governments: Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium,
Eastern Europe
the former Eastern Bloc, or Communist Europe.
East Asia
countries include: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, North Korea, China, and Mongolia.
Japan
after WWII, _____ became a powerhouse unexpectedly.
Taiwan and South Korea - both have developed prosperous and free societies.
Both these societies were anticommunist and had a parliament, however the government was run by one dominant
North Korea
After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea.
China
The people's republic of China is the largest communist population in the world.
South Central Asia
- countries include: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Bangladesh, Kyrgystan, Pakistan,
Pakistan
has become a modern Islamic republic and a major regional power, having nuclear bomb capabilities. It is
Afghanistan
was an Islamic oligarchy, but had its first democratic elections in 2004, after the defeat of the Taliban
Uzbekistan
has a republic, authoritarian presidential rule.
Kazakhstan
has a republic authoritarian presidential rule.
Sri Lanka
is a republic.
Iran
has an Islamic theocratic republic.
Bangladesh
has a parliamentary democracy.
India
has become the world's largest democracy and also a nuclear power.
Southeast Asia
a geographical subdivision of Asia which includes the following nations: Burma, Cambodia,
Oceania
the islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia and
Australia
a democratic, federal state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign.
Seasons:
because the Earth is closer to the Sun during parts of its elliptical orbit than at other times, and due to the
Summer Solstice
occurs in the Northern Hemisphere on June 21 or 22. One of the Earth's poles is tilted directly
Fall Equinox
in the Northern Hemisphere this occurs on September 22 or 23; in the Southern Hemisphere this
Winter Solstice
In the Northern Hemisphere it is on December 21 or 22; areas north of the Arctic Circle have 24
Spring Equinox
the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both
Climate
is a region's usual long-term weather patterns. Average temperatures, amounts and kinds of precipitation,
Weather
the short-term state of the atmosphere at any particular time and place. Weather involves temperature, air
Floods
water overflows its natural or artificial banks into normally dry land.
Drought
periods of time when less rain than normal falls in an area. During these times, crops fail and soil dries out
Snowstorms
have a significant effect on plant, animal and human life. Snow increases the reflection of solar
Earthquakes
tremors of the Earth's surface, sometimes violent and devastating, which result from shock waves
Plate Tectonics
heory which explains the distribution of continents, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains. Plates
Earthquakes create mountain ranges:
Mountain ranges are thought to form from tectonic plates colliding together and pushing the surface of the Earth
Grand Canyon:
The Grand Canyon is a 5,000 foot deep gorge which was carved into the Earth's surface by the Colorado River, in
Yosemite Valley:
Located in California, Yosemite is famous for dramatic rock formations and water falls.
Dispersed settlements
occur in rural areas; the amount of land between each of the dwellings depends on the
Linear settlements
tend to follow roads and river valleys which allows easy communication, and flat lands which
Nucleated settlements
generally found located around ports, harbors and roads; they have a center, or "nucleus."
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization - an international organization, formed in 1949, which includes the
Organization of African Unity
The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963. Originally 32
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - an organization of about a dozen nations that sell oil to
Developing nations:
A nation in which the average income is much lower than in industrialized/developed nations,
Canada
- largest trading partner with the United States. 20% of all U.S. international trade.
Construction of houses, roads, and cities
In the U.S., about a million acres of farmland (an area half the size of
Human-initiated fire
human-initiated fires for land clearing and land use can quickly develop into large-scale and
Water and air pollution:
Most water pollution is the result of human activities; wastes produced by households,
Waste disposal
There are three methods of handling solid waste: burying, recycling, and burning.
Chernobyl Ukraine explosion
In 1986, an explosion in a nuclear power station - was the worst nuclear accident ever.
Desertification
the transformation of arable, or habitable, land into desert, as by a change in climate, or by
Logging
there are two methods: clear-cutting and selective cutting.
Erosion
the process by which weathered particles are moved to another location.
Deforestation
the process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.
Global warming
the term attached to the belief that the Earth's temperature is gradually increasing due to the
Ozone-layer "hole"
a periodic depletion of the ozone layer that occurs over Antarctica
Natural resources:
A natural resource is anything in the environment that is used by people.
Renewable resource
any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished
Nonrenewable resource
natural resources that are not replaced in a useful time frame.
Ecosystems
An ecosystem is a collection of living things and the environment in which they live.
Industrial Revolution:
the Industrial revolution was a rapid industrial growth that began in
Conflicts in the Middle East:
The Middle East is the region in western Asia and northeast Africa that
Korea in the 1940's and 1950's and Vietnam in the 1960's and 1970's:
Looking at a map of North Korea and North Vietnam, you will notice that they are both right next to communist
Native Americans removed from their land to fulfill the Manifest Destiny:
In the 1800's, the newly built railroad trains brought merchants, miners, ranchers, and farmers from the settled East
Prehistory
is the period of time before people began writing.
History beginning
The beginning of history can be traced back before the first human beings appeared about 3 billion years ago.
Paleolithic
the name given to the Old Stone Age and the time period where most of human pre-history took place.
Cro-Magnons
similar bone structure to us today. Probably our direct ancestors.
Neanderthals
In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.
Homo sapiens"
(wise man), became dominant. They made tools from stone and
Neolithic
the period of time about 10,000 B.C., also called the New Stone Age.
Mesopotamia
means between two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers meet in southern Iraq.
Invention of writing:
Western writing first developed here in 3500 B.C. Writing was done with sticks on clay
Code of Hammurabi
a king in ancient Mesopotamia who was known for putting 282 laws of his country into a
First city-states
3000 B.C. - each city acted as a state with its own special gods or goddesses
Military expertise:
soldiers fought mainly on foot, some rode in chariots drawn by wild donkeys.
Architectural monuments
Sumerians built temples to worship the gods. Slaves taken captive in war were
Technological capabilities
- brick makers fired bricks in kilns to produce building materials for structures that were
Alexander the Great:
King of Macedonia, He joined to help defeat the Persians that Athens and Sparta had been fighting together 490 - 479.
Athens
rich and cultured, astronomers, mathematics, thinkers, writers, artists, society with slaves.
Sparta
Best Army, economy based on slave workers, no democracy, sports encouraged for both boys and girls, boys
Rome
Rome rose to power thanks to its fertile farmland, its army (best in Europe) and its key position in the
Roman Mythology
The Romans believed in many of the Gods the Greeks did but gave them Latin names.
The Roman Empire:
At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east. At its largest,
The decline and fall of the Roman empire
In the end, not even the Roman army could control such a huge empire. The
Islam
means peace and submission. There is one God, Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet. People called
Judaism
The first monotheistic (one-God) religion. Jews believe that Moses' prophecies are true and the Messiah
Christianity
believes that there is one God and Jesus Christ was his son, a prophet. Jesus is called Christ
Hinduism
ancient India's first great religion. No unified systems of beliefs or ideas. There's only one supreme God
India
republic in southeast Asia, capital is New Delhi.
Caste system
a division in society into groups of higher power and lower power socially.
Hinduism
religion of India that emphasizes freedom from the material world thru
Buddhism
A religion, founded by Buddha, that believes that the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping
Confucianism
500 BC, a scholar named Confucius taught a system of "right behavior" which has influenced
Taoism
a religion native to China, its adherents attempt to live according to the Tao - the "way" which
Feudalism
In theory, the emperor owned all the land and gave portions of the land to his leading nobles in
Shintoism
Shinto means the way of the gods and was the traditional religion of Japan.
Buddhism
the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping gods, but in right thinking and selfdenial.
Shoguns
For 700 years, Japan was under the rule of the Japanese military leaders known as shoguns.
Emperors
he male ruler of the Japanese empire.
Samurai
Japanese soldiers who served the land owned by the lords (daimyos).
Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa south of the Sarah desert, the countries not part of North Africa. Also known as Black
Mayans
Central America, biggest cities were in modern day Guatemala (south of Mexico), most powerful from
Aztecs
North America / Mexico. 1300 - 1520 They had two main cities, Tenochtitlan (Mexico city today) and Tlatelco. These two cities had a population of half
Incas
1300's - 1536 They built a huge empire in the Andes which grew to include 3,000 miles from north to
Feudalism
was the way of life that governed Medieval Europe for hundreds of years during the 9th century.
The Black Death:
1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the greatest medical disasters in
Gunpowder weapons
allowed European sailors to carry muskets, pistols, and small artillery pieces that they could
Marco Polo
was born in Venice, Italy. He was a Venetian merchant and adventurer who
Magellan
sailed around the world in 1519 - 1522, sailed around the tip of South America,
Christopher Columbus
Columbus proposed to the Spanish government, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, to
Vasco da Gama
the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa.
Renaissance
means "rebirth" or "reawakening",in the early 1300's, a cultural and intellectual revival began in parts of southern Europe, especially
Leonardo da Vinci
1452 - 1446, was a great Renaissance painter (the Mona Lisa) and an engineer (tried to make
Michelangelo
472 - 1564, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who influenced
Renaissance man
outstandingly versatile, well-rounded person.
Slave trade abolished
1833
Eli Whitney,
an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts.
James Watt,
a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
French Revolution:
1789 - 1799The French helped America with the American Revolution causing them to go bankrupt.
Thomas Jefferson
American political philosopher, expressed negative opinions about African Americans and
Rousseau
an 18 century French philosopher who believed that in the state of nature, people are good but that they
John Locke
english philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Enlightenment
an intellectual movement of the 17 and 18 centuries marked by a celebration of the
Industrial Revolution
During the end of the 1700's and first half of the 1800's, mass production of goods, goods made using machine
Eli Whitney,
an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin to clean raw
Imperialism
when a country extends its power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by
First World War
1914-1918 In the late 19 century, rivalry between different nations in Europe increased. They competed with each other for
Russian Revolution
During World War I, Russia was allied with France and Britain. The Russian armies suffered defeats on the
Mexican Revolution
1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos,
Worldwide economic depression in the 1930's
The end of WWI in 1918 left devastation across large areas of Europe and many countries were in economic chaosWhen the prices fell in October of 1929, people rushed to sell their stocks, but prices fell even further.
Adolph Hitler
rose to power in the 1930's promising the suffering German people to make their
Rise of communism
In 1920 there were 23 governments in Europe that could be considered democratic and by 1939, right before WWII,
Vladimir Lenin
In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional governmentFrom 1921 until his death in 1924, Lenin tried to modernize the Soviet Union along Marxist lines..
Leon Trotsky
In the fall of 1917, Lenin and _______ overthrew the provisional government.
Stalin
began to modernize the Soviet Union with a 5-year plan. He tried to transform the USSR
Fascism
a system of government that flourished in GerBoth communism and fascism are forms of Totalitarianism; fascism doesn't demand state ownership of many and Italy, from the 1920's to the end of WWII.
Mussolini
described his rule as Totalitarian, a 20 century form of dictatorship in which the regime, using modern
Nazism in Germany
The Nazi regime began to act against the Jews because they considered them the "undesirables".
Rise of Fascism in Japan
During the 1930's, increased imperial aggression by Europe and America and the effects of the Great Depression
World War II: 1939 - 1945
Truly a global war which was waged over 2/3 of the entire planet; every continent except Antarctica and South
the Holocaust:
12 million victims, 6 million Jewish and 6 million non-Jewish, were killed in the German campaign of racial
The Cold War
was a political war between USSR and its communist allies against the United States and other
Berlin Wall
After WWII, U.S., France and Britain formed the German Federal Republic (Western Germany) and the USSR
Collapse of the Soviet Union
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during
Gorbachev
called for economic reform and a greater emphasis on human rights throughout Eastern Europe.
A global economy:
The international spread of Capitalism in recent decades across national boundaries and with minimal restrictions by
Atomic power
the positive effects of atomic power are the possibility of obtaining energy from fusion/fission
Atomic bomb
the positive effects are that it shortened WWII and saved Allies lives. The negative side is that it
Satellites
in order to send radio signals around the Earth, scientists developed what?
Computers, Internet and e-commerce
In the last 30 years, computers have revolutionized almost every aspect of modern-day life..
E-Commerce
maintaining business relationships and selling info, service, and commodities by means of computer
Technology
the latest advances in technology use light instead of waves to transmit information. Glass fiber optic
Space travel:
the race to space started during the cold war when USSR and the US competed with each other to put
Genetic manipulation
scientists have recently "cracked the genetic code" of the human genome, after an
1492
Columbus hits island off coast of North America.
1497
England's Cabot claims New World (date)
1500
American Natives, Iroquois, unite in Northeast. Plains Indians use horses to follow buffalo herds.
1513
Spain's Ponce de Leon claims Florida and parts of the southwest
1523 - 1524
Verrazano establishes a French claim in North America
1607
Virginia becomes first English colony
1609
Hudson discovers Hudson river, NY, CT, NJ, and Delaware.
1620
Pilgrims sign Mayflower Contract describing how they will be governed in Massachusetts.
1732
13 English colonies
1754
Benjamin Franklin tries to unite the colonies under the Albany Plan to provide an inter-colonial government
1769
Boone explores Kentucky
1773
Boston Tea party
1775
Quakers establish first anti-slavery group
1775 - 1783
American Revolution
1776
Declaration of Independence
1777
Articles of Confederation
1781
Cornwallis surrenders
1787
Constitution of U.S. and Bill of Rights
1789
First President of U.S., George Washington
1793
Whitney's cotton gin
1803
Louisiana Purchase
1803
Marbury v. Madison establishes judicial review
1804
Lewis and Clark expedition
1812
war of 1812, Britain v. U.S. (date)
1820
Democratic party arose
1823
Monroe Doctrine (date)
1840
Manifest Destiny
1848
Gold discovered in California, first women's movement meeting, Mexican war
1849 -
Harriet Tubman escapes slavery (date)
1850
Fugitive Slave Act
1857
Dred Scott decision
1860
First Republican President Lincoln
1861
Civil War begins at Fort Sumter
1863
Emancipation Proclamation
1865
Civil war ends when General Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln assassinated
1865
Amendments 13 passed to protect African Americans
1898
Spanish- American war
1904 - 1914
Panama Canal connects Atlantic with the Pacific ocean (date)
1914 - 1918
World War I
1920's
Harlem Renaissance, Prohibition, 19th amendment - women can vote
1928 - 1940
The Great Depression
1930's
Roosevelt's New Deal
1945
World War II comes to an end with atomic bomb
1950 - 1953
Korean war
1954
Desegregation, Brown v. Board of Ed
1954 - 1975
Vietnam War
1963
Martin Luther King's speech
1965
voting rights to blacks (date)
1975
Vietnam war ends
1989
Berlin wall falls, end of Cold War
1991
World Wide Web
Anasazi (cliff dwellers)
"ancient ones" is the name given to the region where the 4 corners of Utah, Colorado,
Inuit's (Eskimos)
a widely dispersed group of peoples in the Arctic region of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and
Northwest Indians (Kwakiutl)
occupied Vancouver Island, the adjacent mainland and the islands of British
Plains Indians
The Great Plains is vast, treeless grassland in the middle of our nation from the Mississippi River
The Mound Builders
Around 200BC - 500 AD, many different Native American groups lived along the
Iroquois
Sometime in the 1500's, 5 different Northeastern Indian tribes united, later 1 more(living in the
Virginia
In 1607, the first English colony in America.
Ponce de Leon
sailed and discovered Florida and claimed it for Spain.
Cortez
sailed to Mexico and in 1532 crushed the Aztec civilization.
Pizarro
traveled to Peru and conquered the Inca Empire. Cortez conquered South America.
Amerigo Vespucci
made maps
Ferdinand Magellan
first in history to sail around the world
Marco Polo
-famous voyage to China in the late 1200's.
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
House of Burgesses
allowed white male property owners to vote.
Pilgrims/ Massachusetts
Indians showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, pumpkins, beans, how to hunt and fish. To give thanks for the
William Penn
wanted to live in peace with the Indians, so rather than stealing their land, he offered to pay a fair
Middle colonies
New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, centered on farming( large exports of grain).
Colonial men
did everything themselves: cleared field, planted, farmed the field, build house, furniture, fences.
Colonial women
many chores, took care of children, spun thread or yarn, sewed cloth into clothes, prepared and
Colonial Towns
neighbors, blacksmiths, carpenters, chimney sweeps, rope-makers, wheel-makers, barrel-makers,
Slaves
African slaves were brought to the New World with the first colonists.
Colonial culture
90% of colonists lived in rural areas.
The American Revolution 1775-1783
There were several causes for the American Revolution: a growing sense of patriotism and national identity,
The Seven Years War
1756 - 1763 it is also called the French and Indian War which is confusing because the
Sugar Act of 1764
The seven years war ran a huge debt for England who felt the colonists should help pay so the English parliament
The Currency Act
forbade colonists from issuing paper money.
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Declaratory Act
Parliament announces that they are in charge of the colonies
the Townsend Acts
a tax on glass, paper, lead, and tea.
Boston Massacre-March 5, 1770
conflict between colonists and British soldiers in which four colonists were killed
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
The Battle of Concord
is referred to as "the shot heard round the world" because colonial farmers just repelled the army of
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense where he argued for republicanism over a monarchy and colonial independence
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States
Declaration of Independence Quote
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator...
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
There were no separation of powers; the central government was too weak.
King George
he felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the seven year war and began passing taxation
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
George Washington
1st President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States
Benjamin Franklin
printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics
The Constitution and the addition of The Bill of Rights:
"We the people of the U.S., in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
Senate
term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
House of Representatives
must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
Magna Carta
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
The Bill of Rights:
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, dealing mostly with civil rights.
13th Amendment
abolishes slavery in the U.S.
14th Amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Supreme Court
the highest federal court in the United States
The Constitution
set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
Congress
The legislative branch of government, as described in Article I of the US Constitution, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate. Primarily responsible for making laws.
Political parties
organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
Marbury v. Madison
supreme court case was the concept of judicial review
Slavery
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Brown vs. Board of Education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools (5 words),
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968)
Westward expansion
territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
Louisiana Purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Lewis and Clark expedition
an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Henry David Thoreau
Author of Walden who practiced ideas of transcendentalism.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Removal act of 1830
an act to provide for an exchange of lands with lands further west; the Indians were forced to
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
abolition
the act of removing a system or practice or institution (especially slavery)
women's suffrage
the women's right to vote. The movement developed from the fight against slavery.
Fugitive Slave Act
was a law that was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, providing southern
The Dred Scott decision
Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property, not people, and Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory.
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States
The Gettysburg Address
speech by Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
John Brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Plessy v. Ferguson:
court upheld segregation it ruled seperate but equal facilities did not violate the fourteenth ammendment.
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
J.P. Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
Pluralism
a conviction that various religious, ethnic, racial, and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a
Melting Pot
a term expressing the view that immigrants to the United States have been fused or melted into a
Multiculturalism
various cultures in a society merit equal respect and scholarly interest.
Labor movement
the formation of labor unions, during the 1880's, for the workers to receive better treatment by
Spanish-American War
1898 war between Spain and U.S.
Panama Canal
connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 - 1914.
Elizabeth Stanton
was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
Hiroshima
site of 1st Atomic Bomb, killing 70,000+ Japanese citizens
Nagasaki
site of 2nd Atomic Bomb, killing 40,000+ Japanese citizens
The baby boom
Anyone born between 1946 and 1964, roughly.
The Cuban missile Crisis:
When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
McCarthyism
became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence.
Black lists
In 1954, McCarthy accused the army of harboring Communists and they fought back in the Army-McCarthy hearings
Affirmative action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Environmentalism
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
Feudalism
a system of obligations that bound lords and their subjects in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.
Communism
An economic and social system envisioned by the 19th century German scholar, Karl MarxIn theory, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals..
Liberal Democracy
rule by the people, helps prevent rule by cruels aristocrats, modern democracies don't fight wars with each other.
Federalism
a system of government which power is divided between a national government (federal) and regional government.
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Theocracy
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
Legislative Branch
the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating and creates the laws. There are two houses in it. One is the Senators. There are two senators per state. There is also a House of representatives. number of people per state depends on population size.
Judicial Branch
The judicial branch decides what the laws mean. For example: The law, don't litter implies on trash being thrown outside. But it does not consider throwing away a bitten piece of food.
Executive Branch
The Executive Branch carries out the laws. A word for this would be "execute". The only member in this group is the president of the united states of america.
Electoral college
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
Naturalization
the proceeding whereby a foreigner is granted citizenship
Minority
a smaller group of people who differ racially or politically or religiously, or economically from a larger
Ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
Stereotypes
generalized beliefs about what members of an identifiable group are like that operate as schemas when perceiving members of those groups
Idealism
a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard. The belief that your ideals can be achieved, often when this doesn't seem likely to others.
Biases
a prejudice towards one particular point of view or ideology.
Prejudice
a hostile opinion about some person or class of persons.
Discrimination
to show favor or disfavor unjustly often based on prejudice and/or bias for or against a person or group of persons.
Cognitive development
the growth of the person's ability to learn
Behavioralism
a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
Capitalism
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
Socialism
an economic theory advocating collective ownership of factories, mines and other businesses
Continental Divide
Identifies the point in the Rocky Mountains at which streams and rivers flow west or east. Colorado is the only state intersected by the divide
Piedmont Region
Plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains low rolling hills
Stretches from New Jersey to Alabama.
Piedmont Region
Anasazi
Noted for large pueblos, sophisticated irrigation & pottery they were destroyed by drought in 12th century but culture was inherited by Hopi, Zuni & Acoma.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
3-Step Plan for territories to become states: 1. Appointment of governor, secretary & 3 judges by Congress 2. Once it had a pop of 5000 free adult men territory qualified to have legislature 3. at population of 60,000 people terr could apply to Congress for admission as a state.
Louisiana Territory
Land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains purchased from France for 15 million dollars. It doubled the size of the US at the time, getting more land than the US wanted.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Transcendentalist Movement
Movement that held that reality involves going beyond the senses and investigating the processes of the mind of thought. Centered around New England. Authors:
Emerson
Transcendentalism
Thoreau
Transcendentalism
Fuller
Transcendentalism
Frances Cabot Lowell
Early 1800's: founded cotton cloth factory in MA and employed young women from NE farms until they married and had families. Believed this would prevent a permanent underclass of factory workers.
abolitionist movement
the movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Kansas-Nebraska Bill
(FP)1854, Stephen Douglas, Act in 1854 which created two new organized territories and allowed popular sovereignty to determine the status of slavery, victory for the South
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Fugitive Slave Act
passed 1850 this law stated that ALL citizens were required to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves and fugitives slaves could NOT get a jury trial
Panama Canal
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
New Deal
the policies of social and economic reform introduced in the United States between 1933-1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt's basic goal was to reform capitalism in order to preserve it. Roosevelt created relief programs like the WPA to help him with his New Deal.
Feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Tang Dynasty
considered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia
Heliocentric Universe
sun center of universe; developed by copernicus
free trade
the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely between countries
Alexis de Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes. Also known as Intolerable Act
Townshend Act
The act that put taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea
Freedom Act
1966 Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
Mesabi Range
a range of hills in northeastern Minnesota where rich iron ore deposits were discovered in 1887
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved (to ensure their loyalty). It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
Jakota Triangle
The easternmost region of the East Asian realm, consisting of Japan, (South) Korea, and Taiwan
Senator Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
Market Revolution
the major change in the U.S. economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell good rather than make them for themselves
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Invasion of Afghanistan
October 2001, the United States began bombing Taliban centers in Afghanistan in response to the attack on September 11, 2001 of the World Trade Center in New York
Iraq War
A war fought to end Sadaam Hussein's influence in Iraq and disarm them of WMD's
Korean War
a war between North and South Korea, The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
League of Nations
an international organization suggested by Woodrow Wilson after WWI, it was formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations. The U.S. never joined.
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
World War I
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918 "The Great War"
World War II
War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; 1939 to 1945, but U.S. involved from 1941-1945