House of Correction
Detention facility that combined the major elements of a workhouse, poorhouse, and penal industry by both disciplining inmates and setting them to work.
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Italian scholar who applied the rationalist philosophy of the enlightenment to the criminal justice system
A school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from free will that demands responsibility and accountability of all perpetrators and taht stresses the need for punishments sever enough to deter others.
Main Priniciples of Classical Criminology
The basis of all social action must be the utilitarian concept of the greatest good for the greatest number of people ; Crime must be considered an injury to society and the only rational measure of crime is the extent of the injury.;Prevention of crime is more important than punishment for crimes to prevent crime, laws must be improved and codified so that citizens can understand and support them.; secret accusations and torture must be abolished. Further the accused have a right to speedy trials and to human treatment before trial as well as every right to bring forward evidence on their behalf. The purpose of punishment is crime deterrence, not social revenge. Certainty and swiftness in punishment rather than severity best secure this goal. Imprisonment should be more widely employed and better physical quarters should be provided with prisoners classified by age sex and degree of criminality.
Through james wilson who is a leading legal scholar of the postrevolutionary period, credited beccaria with having influenced his thinking notably with regard to the deterrent function of punishment.
English advocate of utilitarianism in prison management and discipline. Argued for the treatment and reform of prisoners.
English prison reformer whose book the state of prisons in england and wales contributed greatly to the passage of the penitentiary act of 1779 by the hosue of commons
english quaker who arrived in philadelphia in 1682. Succeeded in getting pennsylvania to adopt the great law emphasizing hard labor in a house of correction as a punishment for most crimes.
a former army officer, lynds was appointed warden of the newly opened auburn prison in 1821. He developed the congregate system and a regimen of strict discipline. Inmateswere known only by their numer, wore striped clothing and moved in lockstep. In 1825 he was commisioned to oversee construction with inmate labor at ossining (sing sing) new york.
Pennsylvania (separate system)
Goal:Redemption of the offender through the well ordered routine of the prison. || Implementation, penance, contemplation, labor, silence || Method: Inmates are kept in their cells for eating, sleeping, and working. ||Activity: Bible reading & working on crafts in cell
New York (Auburn) (Congregate System)
Goal: Redemption of the offender through the well ordered routine of the prison || Implementation: Strict discipline obedience, labor, silence || Method: Inmates sleep in their cells but come together to eat and work || Activity: Work together in shops making goods to be sold by the state.
system under which inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their labor. In southern states the prisoners were used as field laborers.
A systemin which offenders are assessed a certain number of marks based on the severity of their crime at the time of sentencing. Prisoners could reduce their term and gain release by reducing marks through labor good behavior and education achievement. Developed by alexander maconochie
Enoch Cobb Wines
a guiding force of american corrections from 1862 when he becames the secretary of the new york prison association and served so until his death. Organizerof the national prison association in 1870 and a major contributor to the cincinnati declaration of principles.
reformer who began his career in penology as a clerk in connecticuts wethersfield prison at age 21. In 1854 while superintendent of monroe county penitentiary in rochester, new york he began to experiment with ideas on making prisons more rehabilitative. He put his theories to work as the superintendent at elmira state reformatory, new york. In 1876 retiring from that institution in 1900.
a prison reformer in the progressive tradition gill designed massachusets norfolk prison colony to be a model prison community. Norfolk provided individual treatment programs and inclluded inmates on an advisory council to deal with community governance
the first director of the federal bureau of prisons , bates advocated prison reform throughout his career. after becoming the president of the american corrections association in 1926 he also played an important role in the development of programs in new jersey and new york.
crime control model at corrections
a model of corrections based on the assumption that criminal behavior can be controlled by more use of incarceration and other forms of strict supervision.
punishment inflicted on a person who has infringed on the rights of others and so deserves to be penalized. the severity of the sanction should fit the seriousness of the crime.
punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage the commision of offenses by others
punishment inflicted on criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes.
punishment designed to prepair the damage done to the victim and community by an offender criminal act.
a period of incarceration with minimum and maximum terms stipulated so that parole eligibility depends on the time necessary for treatment; closely associated with the rehabilitation concept
a fixed period of incarceration imposed by a court ; associated with the concept of retribution or deserved punishment.
a sentence for which the legislature or a commision sets a minimum and maximum range of months or years. Judges are to fix the length of the sentence within that range allowing for special circumstances
a sentence stipulating that some minimum period of incarceration must be served by people convicted of selected crimes regardless of background or circumstances.
reduction of an inmates prison sentence at the discretion of the prison administrator for good behavior or for participation in vocational educational and treatment programs.
a variety of punishments that are more restrictive than traditional probation but less severe and costly than incarceration.
a sentence allowing the offender to serve the sanctions imposed by the court while he or she lives in the community under supervision