Upgrade to remove ads
BIO EXAM 3 (DENTLER)
Terms in this set (81)
A skin cell in G2 of Interphase has _______ as much DNA as it had in G1.
How many copies of each gene are present in skin cells at G1 of interphase?
Homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated during ___________.
Sister chromatids of replicated chromosomes are separated during ____________.
Meiosis II and Mitosis
Recombination between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes happen during ______ of meiosis.
The FoxP2 gene is thought to be related to language in humans. At prophase I, how many copies of the FoxP2 gene are present in a cell? Keep in mind that humans are diploid
four copies, one on each sister chromatid in a pair of homologous chromosomes
Consider a diploid organism (2n) with a haploid complement (n) of four chromosomes. At prophase I, how many total chromosomes will be present in a cell?
eight, four pairs of chromosomes
T/F: During meiosis, two rounds of DNA synthesis are required to four four gametes from one parent cell.
Gametes are not genetically identical to other gametes formed during ___________.
Colchicine is a drug that is used in plant breeding to create polyploids. It blocks the assembly of microtubules. If dividing cells are treated with colchicine, at what stage of mitosis would you predict the arrest would occur?
________ _________ have the most similarity in nucleotide sequence.
A homologous chromosome pair is best described as two chromosomes that have ____________.
The same genes in the same order but possibly with different alleles of some of the genes
Sister chromatids are best described as DNA molecules that have __________.
Virtually identical sequences of nucleotides
The correct sequence of steps in the eukaryotic cell cycle is _______________.
G1 -----> S phase -----> G2 ------> Mitosis -----> Cytokinesis
Mitotic cell division requires ____________.
The microtubule organizing center for the mitotic spindle
Paramecium is a single- cell eukaryotic organism that can reproduce by mitotic cell division. Prior to the M phase of the cell cycle, what must occur?
the cell must replicate its chromosomes
All of the following happen during mitosis except _______?
a. Formation of the spindle
b. Condensing of the Chromosome
c. Uncoupling of the chromatids at the centromeres
d. synthesis of DNA
d. synthesis of DNA
Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells reproduce by cell division. Regardless of the type of cell, all cells must _______ before they divide.
make an exact copy of their genetic information
Animals breathe in air containing oxygen and create out are with less oxygen. The consumed oxygen is used where?
As an electron acceptor in the respiratory electron transport chain
T/F: The energy from the movement of electrons through the electron-transprot chain is directly used to synthesize ATP.
Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is generated through:
If oxygen is unavailable, what is predicted to happen to the citric acid cycle?
It stops because the supplies of NAD+ and FAD become depleted
Out of the 5 molecules
Which has the greatest potential energy?
Following the citric acid cycle but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is found in ____________.
What is a net product of the citric acid cycle for each molecule of pyruvate generated in glycolysis?
When fats are used as an energy source, the fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-coA. That means that fats bypass the reactions of __________ and enter the respiratory pathway at ___________.
Glycolysis ; the citric acid cycle
Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions (endergonic and exergonic) by which the cell can obtain ATP. NAD+ plays a crucial role in the reactions of glycolysis by:
accepting electrons from glucose so that glucose gets partially oxidized to pyruvate
Glycolysis results in the partial oxidation of glucose to pyruvate. This means that:
glucose donated electrons to NAD+
In the process of the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, some potential energy is transferred to NADH and ATP.
What is a net product of glycolysis?
An organism that carries out cellular respiration in its mitochondria:
May be a cell from a terrestrial plant
What equation summarizes the overall reactions of cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
The energy in organic molecules is released in a series of steps because:
More energy can be harvested for cellular use in multiple steps than from a single step
In which form are electrons transferred during typical redox reactions such as the oxidation of glucose?
as Hydrogen atoms
During which stage(s) of cellular respiration is(are) carbon dioxide released?
Stage 2 & 3
Very low concentrations of detergent make membranes leaky to small molecules and ions without damaging proteins. In isolated mitochondria exposed to detergent, the molecules of the electron transport chain and of ATP synthase remain intact. Would it be expected that the ATP synthesis to continue in the presence of low concentrations of detergent?
No, because with a leaky membrane, H+ gradient cannot be maintained.
Obligomyacin is an antibiotic that binds ATP synthase, blocking the flow of protons through the enzyme's proton channel. In addition to preventing synthesis of ATP, what additions effect might be expected in response to the presences of obligomyacin?
Lower pH in the inter membrane space
Glucose is stored in plants as _________ and in animals as ____________.
starch ; glycogen
DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol) is an effective weight loss agent that was used in diet pills in the 1930's. It has since been removed from the market (though it is available online) because of the serious side effects such as fever, cataracts, rashes and sometimes death. DNP inserts into the inner mitochondrial membrane and shuttles protons between the inter membrane space and the matrix. Based on this information what could you predict.
Decreased difference in pH between matrix and intermembrane space
Dissipation of proton gradient
Reduced ATP production
Certain complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain pump protons. What best describes the movement of protons in this situation?
across the inner mitochondrial membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space
Between these 5 compounds
3. sodium chloride
Which has the greatest potential energy?
Are the equations below endergonic?
1. ATP + H2O -----> ADP + Pi DeltaG1= -7kcal/ mol
2. Phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O ---> pyruvate + Pi DeltaG2= -14.8 kcal/mol
3. Glucose + Pi ---> glucose -6- phosphate + H2O DeltaG3= + 3.3 kcal/mol
4. ADP + Pi ----> ATP + H2O DeltaG3= +7 kcal/ mol
Only 3 and 4 because they are positive
A small amount of energy is produced by substrate level phosphorylation: Most is produced by oxidative phosphorylation describes what?
energy production during cellular respiration
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is:
The protons of an electron transport chain are:
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
The majority of energy generated in the citric acid cycle is in the form of:
energy electrons donated to NAD+ and FADH
Where does the citric acid cycle take place?
Why is acetyl-coA synthesis important in cellular respiration?
It links glycolysis with aerobic respiration
The inputs to glycolysis include what?
The inputs to glycolysis do not include:
At the end of glycolysis, the carbon molecules originally found in the starting glucose molecule are in the form of:
two pyruvate molecules
In glycolysis, ATP is synthesized via:
Substrate level phosphorylation
In cellular respiration, glucose is _______ to CO2 and oxygen is _______ to water.
oxidized ; reduced
The ________ forms of the electron carriers NAD+/NADH and FADH/FADH2 have high potential energy.
T/F: Oxidation is the gain of electrons
The electron transport chain is part of:
Cellular respiration is a series of _______ reactions.
Noncompetitive inhibitors of a reaction will bind _______.
somewhere on the enzyme that is not at the active site.
___________ bind to the active site of an enzyme.
substrates and competitive inhibitors
Enzymes are __________.
The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi is a(n) _________ reaction with a _________ DeltaG.
endergonic ; positive
The hydrolysis of _________ is an exergonic reaction that drives many endergonic reactions in a cell.
Spontaneous reactions have a ___________ DeltaG.
Combining glucose molecules to form a glycogen is an example of what?
Your lunch is digested by enzymes in your gastrointestinal tract.
These chemical reactions are best categorized as _________.
Streptokinase is an enzyme produced by streptococcal bacteria. This enzyme can lyse clots. Streptokinase is harvested from culture media and filter sterilized. This purified enzyme is injected into heart attack patients to dissolve clots that may be present in coronary arteries. Why does this injection not harm the patient?
the enzyme is highly specific
What would be most likely to lead to the development of cancer?
The activation of an oncogene and an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor gene.
CDK's are important in the regulation of the cell cycle. They carry out their function by ___________.
adding phosphate groups to target proteins
An enzyme that attaches a phosphate group to another molecule is called ________.
The epithelial cells in skin of an animal have 24 chromosomes are present in the gametes of this animal?
Studies of rapidly dividing embryonic animal cells revealed:
a. the rapid production of cyclin proteins is trailed by an activation of CDK enzymes.
b. All of these choices are correct.
c. inhibition of protein production blocks mitosis.
d. a cyclic activation of protein kinases in sync with the cell cycle.
e. a cyclic production of certain proteins in sync with the cell cycle.
b. all of these choices are correct
Processes that regulate cell division in mammals include:
a. rapid production of cyclin proteins that activate CDK enzymes.
b. different cyclins and CDKs act at different stages of the cell cycle to promote cell division.
c.activated cyclin-CDK complexes trigger cell cycle events.
d. rapid degradation of cyclins after CDK activation.
e. All of these choices are correct.
e. all of these choices are correct
Many normal genes that have important functions in cells sometimes acquire mutations that cause the products of these genes to have negative effects including the development of cancer. These genes are called:
Cell division is regulated by:
a. signals about the nutritional status of the cell.
b. All of these choices are correct.
c. growth factor signals.
d. signals that indicate a sufficient size of the cell.
e. signals that indicate that DNA has been replicated.
b. all these choices are correct
Which major checkpoint delays the cell cycle when DNA replication is incomplete?
When nutrients are suboptimal for cell growth and division, the cell cycle arrests. At which stage of the cell cycle/checkpoint would you predict this arrest to occur?
Most of the significant changes in activities and functions that accompany passage through a cell cycle checkpoint are regulated by the:
activation of kinase enzymes
Many of the specific functions that are triggered when a cell passes one of the cell cycle checkpoints result from activation of enzymes and other proteins. A common mechanism for this activation is:
phosphorylation of specific proteins
Which of the following is capable of phosphorylating key proteins involved in regulating the cell cycle?
d. cyclin-CDK complex
What would most likely contribute to uncontrolled cell proliferation (i.e., cancer)?
A mutant CDK that was active in the absence of its cyclin binding partner
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Cellular Respiration: Biology Review
Bio Exam Chapter 6 PLQ
Chapter 7 cellular respiration
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR