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APUSH Unit 7 (Chapters: 20, 21, 22) Study Guide

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Fort Sumter- reasons for attack; Lincoln's Decisions
When President Lincoln was elected, there were only two significant forts in the South that flew the Union's flag. Fort Sumter, in the Charleston harbor, needed supplies in order to support its men. Therefore, Lincoln adopted a middle-of-the-road solution. He told the South that the North was sending provisions to the fort, not supplies for reinforcement. Taking the move by Lincoln as an act of aggression, the South Carolinians fired upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Virginia, Arkansas, and Tennessee all seceded after the attack on Fort Sumter. The 11 seceded states were known as the "submissionists." Lincoln now had a reason for an armed response. He called upon the Union states to supply militiamen.
The Border States- advantages/significance
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia were the Border States. They were the only slave states that hadn't seceded from the Union. The Border States contained the Ohio River, a vital necessity for both the North and South. Lincoln's official reason for the war was to preserve the Union, not to end slavery. Supporting an end to slavery would likely have caused the pro-slavery Border States to also secede.
The Five Civilized Tribes and their role in the War
The Five Civilized Tribes (Native American) (Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles) sided with the Confederacy. These tribes were allowed to send delegates to the Confederate congress. Most of the Plains Indians sided with the Union.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the North
The North held ¾ of the nation's wealth and ¾ of the nation's railroad system. It also had nearly twice as large of a population as the South, partly because more European immigrants arrived in the North.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the South
The South had the advantage of fighting defensively on its own land and it did not have to win in order to preserve the Confederacy; it just had to fight to a draw. There were not a lot of factories in the South, but the South was able to seize federal weapons from the Union. The South had a lot of fields of food to feed their soldiers, but had a disadvantage of having ruined transportation of railroads.
Characteristics of both soldiers
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Billy Yank v Johnny Reb
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Soldier Life- supplies; greatest hardship, etc
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The Union Blockade- effectiveness, Treatment by the British
The common people of Britain & France supported the North, hoping to end slavery. Because of this, these countries refrained from breaking the Union naval blockades. The British manufacturers depended on cotton from the South, but before the war, a surplus of cotton had developed in Britain, allowing it to function without purchasing cotton from the South. Therefore, Britain couldn't afford to break the Union blockade to access cotton. If it had done this, then it would have lost the wheat and corn from the North.
British Relations:
With the North
With the South
The Importance of diplomacy
The Trent affair occurred in late 1861. A Union warship stopped a British mail steamer, the Trent, and removed 2 Confederate diplomats who were heading to Europe. Britain started to send troops to Canada in retaliation, but the situation was resolved when President Lincoln freed the Confederate prisoners. British shipyards were surreptitiously producing Confederate commerce-raiders. The British ships left their ports unarmed, picked up arms elsewhere, and captured Union ships. One notable ship was the Alabama. The British attempted to end this practice in 1863.
Napoleon III
Emperor Napoleon III of France installed a French government in Mexico City in 1863. Maximilian was the French emperor of Mexico City. These actions were in direct violation of the Monroe Doctrine. Napoleon hoped that the Union would not retaliate due to its weakness from fighting the Civil War. When the Civil War ended in 1865, though, America threatened to invade Mexico. Napoleon was forced to abandon Maximilian and Mexico City.
Canadian Relations:
Union
Confederacy
It was between the North, South, and Canada. The North had bad relations with Canada because of what people who live in there do to them so they hate them. While the South liked Canada because they had British people live there so they would try to protect them. This was happening in America and Canada. This is significant because it showed how other countries would get hurt due to anger from other countries. So those who didn't do anything could still get hurt.
Weaknesses of the Southern Cause
Some of the weaknesses were the fact that they had a lot less people to help fight for their cause, that they didn't have a lot of factories to help them do better.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed how badly the Southern cause was because they were not nearly as well off as the North was.
Lincoln v Davis-
advantages/disadvantages
The one defect of the South's constitution was that its own states could secede. Some state troops refused to serve outside their borders.
President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy often had disputes with his own congress. Davis's task as President proved to be beyond his powers. Lincoln and the North enjoyed a long-established government that was financially stable and fully recognized at home and abroad.
The National Banking System
The North increased tariffs and excise taxes to financially support the war. In early 1861, after enough anti-tariff Southern members had seceded, Congress passed the Morrill Tariff Act, a high protective tariff that increased duties by 5%-10% to raise additional revenue and provide more protection for the Northern manufacturers. The Washington Treasury issued paper money, a greenback currency was backed by the Union's perceived credit, the value of the greenback was constantly changing. In 1863, Congress authorized the National Banking System, it was designed to stimulate the sale of government bonds & to establish a standard currency. Banks who joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds and issue paper money that was backed by the bonds. The Confederate government also issued bonds and raised taxes. It was forced to print blue-backed paper money that was subject to runaway inflation.
The North (during the war):
Economy
Women
The North's Economic Boom
Newly invented, labor-saving machinery enabled the North to expand economically. Mechanical reapers (farm machines used to harvest grain) allowed men to leave the farms for the war, while increasing harvesting capacity. Petroleum was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 and it led to a rush of people known as the "Fifty-Niners." The Homestead Act of 1862 provided free land to many people.
The Civil War opened up many jobs for women that were originally occupied by men. The U.S. Sanitary Commission was organized by women to provide medical support to Union armies in the field.
The First Battle at Bull Run (July 21, 1861)
President Abraham Lincoln decided to attack a small Confederate force at Bull Run. If successful, the victory would show the superiority of Union arms and might eventually lead to the capture of Richmond. The Union and Confederate forces met. Unexpectedly, the Confederates won as "Stonewall" Jackson held his line of Confederate soldiers until reinforcements arrived. The loss for the Union dispelled the allusion of a quick end to the war.
George McClellan
The Peninsular Campaign
In 1861, General George B. McClellan was given command of the Army of the Potomac (Union). Starting the Peninsula Campaign, McClellan's army launched a waterborne attack in the spring of 1862 that moved towards Richmond. He came to within sight of Richmond and attacked "Stonewall" Jackson. General Robert E. Lee launched a counterattack against the Union forces, known as the Seven Days' Battle, from June 26 to July 2, 1862 and drove McClellan's forces back to the sea.
The Peninsular Campaign
This was done by McClellan
A reluctant McClellan at last decided upon a waterborne approach to Richmond, which lies at the western base of a narrow peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers—hence the name given to this historic encounter: the Peninsula Campaign.
Where- This happened right near Richmond
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed the approach McClellan took and succeeded with.
The Union Strategy
Union strategy now turned toward total war. As finally developed, the Northern military plan had six components: first, slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts; second, liberate the slaves and hence undermine the very economic foundations of the Old South; third, cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River; fourth, chop the Confederacy to pieces by sending troops through Georgia and the Carolinas; fifth, decapitate it by capturing its capital at Richmond; and sixth (this was Ulysses Grant's idea especially), try everywhere to engage the enemy's main strength and to grind it into submission. Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed the Union's strategy of just trying to destroy the South and completely annihilate them.
The Merrimack
Resourceful Southerners raised and reconditioned a former wooden U.S. warship, the Merrimack, and plated its sides with old iron railroad rails. Renamed the Virginia, this clumsy but powerful monster easily destroyed two wooden ships of the Union navy in the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay; it also threatened catastrophe to the entire Yankee blockading fleet.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed that the South had the power to actually fight back and they had a chance to win the war.
The Battle of Antietam
Lincoln, yielding to popular pressure, hastily restored McClellan (little mac) to active command of the main Northern army. His soldiers tossed their caps skyward and hugged his horse as they hailed his return. Fortune shone upon McClellan when two Union soldiers found a copy of Lee's battle plans wrapped around a packet of three cigars dropped by a careless Confederate officer. With this crucial piece of intelligence in hand, McClellan succeeded in halting Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862, in one of the bitterest and bloodiest days of the war. Antietam was more or less a draw militarily. But Lee, finding his thrust parried, retired across the Potomac. Why is this significant- This is significant because this was the war that destroyed the Confederate cause and stopped any future push into the Union area.
Grant v Lee
between the North and the South
What- Grant, with more than 100,000 men, struck toward Richmond. He engaged Lee in a series of furious battles in the Wilderness of Virginia, during May and June of 1864, notably in the "Bloody Angle'' and "Hell's Half Acre.'' In this Wilderness Campaign, Grant suffered about fifty thousand casualties, or nearly as many men as Lee commanded at the start. But Lee lost about as heavily in proportion.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it was one of the last battles that just led the South to its demise and overall defeat.
The Battle of Gettysburg
Quite by accident, Meade took his stand atop a low ridge flanking a shallow valley near quiet little Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. There his 92,000 men in blue locked in furious combat with Lee's 76,000 gray-clad warriors. The battle seesawed across the rolling green slopes for three agonizing days, July 1-3, 1863, and the outcome was in doubt until the very end. The failure of General George Pickett's magnificent but futile charge finally broke the back of the Confederate attack—and broke the heart of the Confederate cause.
Why is this significant- This is significant because what it did was break the heart of the Confederate cause for the last time.
The Gettysburg Address
Abraham Lincoln's greatest speeches in history that stated that all men are equal and therefore he then made this war a war over slavery
Why is this significant- This was significant because this influenced the North to keep fighting to win the war and free the slaves.
The Battle of Vicksburg
This was between the North and South
What- General Grant was now given command of the Union forces attacking Vicksburg and in the teeth of grave difficulties displayed rare skill and daring. The siege of Vicksburg was his best-fought campaign of the war.
Why is this significant- This is significant because after this victory the Confederacy was split in half.
Major battles fought on Union soil
What- The major battles fought on the Union's soil was probably the battle of Antietam and the battle of Gettysburg
Where- This happened up North
Why is this significant- This is significant because the battles fought up North were some of the most important battles during the entire war.
The Emancipation Proclamation draft; announcement; terms; significance
Lincoln said this speech
What- This was announced right after the battle of Antietam and what it basically said was allowing all of the slaves to be forever free.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it allowed all slaves to be free and it allowed them to help fight for the cause they believed in.
Black Soldiers during the war - period of enlistment; tasks
Basically the North was very accepting of black help they actually accounted for up to 10% of their army. While the South didn't think about using blacks to help them till the very end in which it didn't make a difference.
Why is this significant- This is significant because this gave blacks a chance to prove themselves and help them for the future because later on they were able to vote because of military experience.
Sherman's March
This was done by William Tecumseh Sherman
What- But Sherman's hated "Blue Bellies,'' sixty thousand strong, cut a sixty-mile destruction through Georgia. They burned buildings, leaving only the blackened chimneys ("Sherman's Sentinels''). They tore up railroad rails, heated them red-hot, and twisted them into "iron doughnuts'' and "Sherman's hairpins.'' They bayoneted family portraits and ran off with valuable "souvenirs.
Where- This happened in Georgia
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed the North's power and the South slowly but surely losing.
The Peace Democrats
Who- They were the people who didn't support Lincoln's administration
What- At the extreme were the so-called Copperheads, named for the poisonous snake, which strikes without a warning rattle. Copperheads openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and especially, after 1863, against emancipation. They denounced the president as the "Illinois Ape'' and condemned the "Nigge* War.'' They commanded considerable political strength in the southern parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it is showing that even though Peace and War Democrats are Democrats it shows how the war has broken up a political party into supporting Lincoln or not.
Election of 1864: Candidates: results
Who- It was between Lincoln and McClellan
What- The Republicans combined with the War Democrats and they voted for Lincoln while the Peace Democrats voted for McClellan, in the end Lincoln won.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed that Lincoln would win presidency and help change the future of this country and really affect the war.
The Surrender at Appomattox
This is between the North and the South
What- The Confederates, tasting the bitter dregs of defeat, tried desperately to negotiate for peace between the "two countries.'' Lincoln himself met with Confederate representatives aboard a Union ship moored at Hampton Roads, Virginia, to discuss peace terms. But Lincoln could accept nothing short of Union and emancipation, and the Southerners could accept nothing short of independence. So the tribulation wore on—amid smoke and agony—to its terrible climax. The end came with dramatic suddenness. Rapidly advancing Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, in April 1865. Grant—stubble-bearded and informally dressed—met with Lee on the ninth, Palm Sunday, and granted generous terms of surrender.
Why is this significant- This is significant because this was basically the end of the war it led to negotiating about what the North really wanted out of this and they got what they wanted.
Emancipation of blacks
Basically after the Civil War ended Lincoln's proclamation the blacks were allowed to get their freedom but the South needed some encouragement by certain amendments. Also they would allow certain states join the Union and let some people be able to vote if they took an oath of loyalty they would allowed to vote. This oath basically said they would allow slaves to have their rights and they would then be allowed to vote once admitted into the Union.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it gave the former pro-slavery people a chance to redeem themselves and actually be apart of the country they belonged to.
Confederate leaders after the war
This is talking about the confederate leaders after the Civil War ended
What- Davis was temporarily clapped into irons during the early days of his two-year imprisonment. But he and his fellow "conspirators" were finally released, partly because the odds were that no Virginia jury would convict them. All rebel leaders were finally pardoned by President Johnson as sort of a Christmas present in 1868. But Congress did not remove all remaining civil disabilities until thirty years later and only posthumously restored Davis's citizenship more than a century later.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed that the Union was very forgiving and wanted to become united as a Union for the best cause.
The state of Post-war South
Economic life had creaked to a halt. Banks and business houses had locked their doors, ruined by runaway inflation. Factories were smokeless, silent, dismantled. The transportation system had broken down completely. Before the war five different railroad lines had converged on Columbia, South Carolina; now the nearest connected track was twentynine miles away. Agriculture—the economic lifeblood of the South—was almost hopelessly crippled. Once-white cotton fields now yielded a lush harvest of nothing but green weeds. The slave-labor system had collapsed, seed was scarce, and livestock had been driven off by plundering Yankees. Pathetic instances were reported of men hitching themselves to plows, while women and children gripped the handles. This is significant because it showed how disabled the South was after the war, that they were completely economically destroyed. That the North had the advantage the entire time and the South really had no chance.
The Freedmen's Bureau - founding and goals; achievements and shortcomings
The bureau was intended to be a kind of primitive welfare agency. It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees. It taught an estimated 200,000 blacks how to read. In one elementary class in North Carolina sat four generations of the same family, ranging from a six-year-old child to a seventy-five-year-old grandmother.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it allowed people to get an education and get better in life. To help those who were slaves get somewhere in their life and make effects to the society they now lived in.
Andrew Johnson - background; political views
Born in North Carolina and early orphaned, Johnson never attended school but was apprenticed to a tailor at age ten. Ambitious to get ahead, he taught himself to read, and later his wife taught him to write and do simple arithmetic. Like many another self-made man, he was inclined to overpraise his maker. He shone as an impassioned champion of the poor whites against the planter aristocrats, although he himself ultimately owned a few slaves. He excelled as a two-fisted stump speaker before angry and heckling crowds, who on occasion greeted his political oratory with cocked pistols, not just cocked ears. Elected to Congress, he attracted much favorable attention in the North (but not the South) when he refused to secede with his own state.
Why is this significant- This is significant because he led to reconstruction in the future but he was also a very good opponent to Lincoln in the presidential debate.
The Wade-Davis Bill
Congress made this
What- It required that 50 percent of a state's voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln's as the price of readmission. Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" this bill by refusing to sign it after Congress had adjourned. Republicans were outraged. They refused to seat delegates from Louisiana after that state had reorganized its government in accordance with Lincoln's 10 percent plan in 1864.
Where- This happened in America
Why is this significant- This is significant because it told the Southerners they had to allow the rights for their former slaves and oblige to the Union's constitution.
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan vs Johnson's Reconstruction plan vs Congress' Plan
Congress- the Republicans in Congress had enjoyed a relatively free hand. They had passed much legislation that favored the North, such as the Morrill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, and the Homestead Act. Now many Republicans balked at giving up this political advantage. Lincoln- Accordingly, Lincoln in 1863 proclaimed his "10 percent" Reconstruction plan. It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10 percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be formal erection of a state government. Lincoln would then recognize the purified regime. Johnson- It disfranchised certain leading Confederates, including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000, though they might petition him for personal pardons. It called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slavefreeing Thirteenth Amendment. States that complied with these conditions, Johnson declared, would be swiftly readmitted to the Union
Why is this significant- This is significant because these people gave options on how to help fix the country and make it better. It would help the Southerners fit into the Union's way of living.
The Black Codes: goals; examples; effects
This is talking about emancipated blacks
What- The Black Codes aimed, first of all, to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. The crushed Cotton Kingdom could not rise from its weeds until the fields were once again put under hoe and plow—and many whites wanted to make sure that they retained the tight control they had exercised over black field hands and plow drivers in the days of slavery. Dire penalties were therefore imposed by the codes on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, which usually committed them to work for the same employer for one year, and generally at pittance wages
Why is this significant- This is significant because this was basically the bringing back of slavery but it was not called slavery. This is just history kinda repeating itself.
The Reconstruction Amendments
It called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave freeing Thirteenth Amendment. The Republicans now undertook to rivet the principles of the Civil Rights Bill into the Constitution as the Fourteenth Amendment. They feared that the Southerners might one day win control of Congress and repeal the hated law. The proposed amendment, as approved by Congress and sent to the states in June 1866, was sweeping.
Presidential Johnson vs Congress
Aroused, the Republicans swiftly struck back. In March 1866 they passed the Civil Rights Bill, which conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes. President Johnson resolutely vetoed this forward-looking measure on constitutional grounds, but in April congressmen steamrollered it over his veto—something they repeatedly did henceforth. The hapless president, dubbed "Sir Veto" and "Andy Veto," had his presidential wings clipped, as Congress increasingly assumed the dominant role in running the government. The Republicans now undertook to rivet the principles of the Civil Rights Bill into the Constitution as the Fourteenth Amendment.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed that some people wanted to allow blacks to have their rights while Johnson wanted the black codes to stay.
Reconstruction views of: Democrats; moderate Republicans; radical Republicans
Still opposed to rapid restoration of the Southern states, the radicals wanted to keep them out as long as possible and apply federal power to bring about a drastic social and economic transformation in the South. But moderate Republicans, more attuned to time-honored principles of states' rights and self-government, recoiled from the full implications of the radical program. They preferred policies that restrained the states from abridging citizens' rights, rather than policies that directly involved the federal government in individual lives.
Why is this significant- This is significant because it showed that even though they are both republicans they have different opinions relating to the South.
Women during Reconstruction: feminists; African Americans women
Now, with the war ended and the Thirteenth Amendment passed, feminist leaders believed that their time had come. They reeled with shock, however, when the wording of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined equal national citizenship, for the first time inserted the word male into the Constitution in referring to a citizen's right to vote. Women had played a prominent part in the prewar abolitionist movement and had often pointed out that both women and blacks lacked basic civil rights, especially the crucial right to vote. The struggle for black freedom and the crusade for women's rights, therefore, were one and the same in the eyes of many women.
Why is this significant- This is significant because women did a lot during the war and they wanted their own rights which also led to them getting their rights eventually.
Unions League
Having gained their right to suffrage, Southern black men seized the initiative and began to organize politically. Their primary vehicle became the Union League, originally a pro-Union organization based in the North. Assisted by Northern blacks, freedmen turned the League into a network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates. The league's mission soon expanded to include building black churches and schools, representing black grievances before local employers and government, and recruiting militias to protect black communities from white retaliation.
Why is this significant- This is significant because this really helped blacks get what they needed in life such as education and this also helped them develop their culture by creating churches and schools for blacks.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
Who- This is talking about blacks
What- This is what former owners of slaves who now hold some kind of office position after they get free.
Where- This happened in America
Why is this significant- This is significant because it shows that slaves are capable of getting high up positions even after not having an education for a long time.