Yule Chapter 19: Language and social variation
Terms in this set (22)
A group of people who share a set of norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
The study of the relationship between language and society
Social class is mainly used to define groups of speakers as having something in common. Generally split into two main groups: "middle class" (education/no manual labour) and "working class". (no education/ manual labour.)
Division by economic status, "upper" and "lower"
Dialect studies: What is important?
Pronunciation, words or structures that are regularly used in one form or another.
A factor such as working class or middle class that is used to identify one group of speakers and different from another.
A feature of language use that distinguishes one group of speakers from another.
Personal dialect, however this often tends to sound like others with whom we share similar educational backgrounds and/or occupations.
A feature that occurs in someone's speech that marks them as a member of a particular social group.
Social feature in language use. Most basic distinction is between formal uses and informal uses. Formal style is when we pay more careful attention to how we're speaking and informal style is when we pay less attention.
Changing speech styles, (ex. informal to formal.)
Status of a speech style that is generally recognized as "better" or more positively valued in the larger community, in contrast to covert prestige.
The status of a speech style or feature as having positive value, but which is "hidden" or not valued similarly among the larger community.
Our ability to modify our speech style toward or away from the perceived style of a person we are talking to.
Adopting a speech style that attempts to reduce social distance.
When a speech style is used to emphasize social distance between speakers.
A conventional way of using language that is appropriate in a specific context, which may be identified as situational, occupational, or topical (e,g talking about language).
Defining feature of registers. Special technical vocabulary associated with a specific area of work or interest.
Often used by those who are outside established higher-status groups. "Colloquial speech" describes words or phrases that are used instead of more everyday terms among younger speakers and other groups with special interests.
Words or phrases that people avoid for reasons related to religion, politeness and prohibited behaviour.
African American English (AAE or Black English or Ebonics)
A variety used by many (not all) African Americans in many regions of the USA. It has a number of characteristic features that, taken together, form a distinct set of social markers.
General expression for a kind of social dialect, typically spoken by a lower-status group, which is treated as "non-standard" because of marked differences from the "standard" langauge.