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Chemistry Chapter 5.1
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (35)
energy levels
the fixed energies an electron can have
quantum
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
quantum mechanical model
the modern description, primarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
atomic orbital
a region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
What was inadequate about Rutherford's atomic model?
Rutherford's atomic model could not explain the chemical properties of elements.
What was the new proposal in the Bohr model of the atom?
...Bohr proposed that an electron is found only in specific circular paths, or orbits, around the nucleus
What does the quantum mechanical model determine about the electrons in an atom?
...The quantum mechanical model determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus.
How do sublevels of principal energy levels differ?
...Each energy sublevel corresponds to an orbital of a different shape, which describes where the electron is likely to be found
Dalton's atomic model
1803
pictures atoms as tiny, indestructable particles with no internal structure
Thomson's atomic model
1897
plum pudding model: electrons embedded in a sphere of positive electrical charge.
Contribution of Hantaro Nagaoka to the model of the atom
1904
a Japanese physicist
suggested that an atom has a central nucleus and electrons move in orbits like rings around the sun.
Rutherford Model
1911
The atom has a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus.
Bohr model of the atom
1913
Electron moves in a circular orbit at fixed distances from the nucleus.
Contribution of Louis de Broglie to the atomic model
1923
He proposed that moving particles like electrons have some properties of waves. (Within a few years, his proposal was supposrted by experimental evidence.)
Electron Cloud Model
1926
Erwin Schrodinger develops mathematical equations to describe the motion of electrons in atoms. His work led to this model of the atom.
Contribution of James Chadwick to the model of the atom
1932
He confirmed the existence of neutrons.
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
s-orbital
...
p[x] orbital
...
p[y] orbital
...
p[z] orbital
...
d orbitals
...
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be in n=1?
2
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be in n=2?
8
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be in n=3?
18
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be in n=4?
32
How many sublevels are in n=1?
1
How many sublevels are in n=2?
2
How many sublevels are in n=3?
3
How many sublevels are in n=4?
4
How many orbitals are in n=1?
1
How many orbitals are in n=2?
4
How many orbitals are in n=3?
9
How many orbitals are in n=4?
16
In what order do electrons go into the orbitals?
In order of least energy to highest energy.
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