Chemistry Chapter 14 Quiz

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ideal gas lawgas law that includes all four variables: P, V, T and n. PV = nRTWhat is needed to calculate the amount of gas in a sample at given conditions of volume, temperature and pressure?To calculate the number of moles of a contained gas requires an expression that contains the variable: nUnder what conditions are real gases most likely to differ from ideal gases?Real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressurespartial pressurecontribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure exerted by that gasDalton's law of partial pressuresstates that at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gasesdiffusiontendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout; type of particles is importanteffusiongas escapes through the tiny holder in its container; type of particle is importantGraham's law of effusionstates that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar mass; can also be applied to the diffusion of gasesHow is the total pressure of a mixture of gases related to the partial pressures of the component gases?in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gassesHow does the molar mass of a gas affect the rate at which the gas effuses or diffuses?gases at lower molar mass diffuse and effuse father than gases of higher molar masscompressibility of gases-the large relative distances between particles in a gas means that there is considerable empty space between the particles -the assumption that particles in a gas are relatively far apart explains gas compressibilityHow do conditions change inside a rigid container when you use a pump to add gas to the container?doubling the number of particles of a gas doubles the pressureWhat can happen if too much gas is pumped into a sealed, rigid container?the container can bursttrue/false: when a sealed container of gas is opened, gas will flow form the region of lower pressure to the region of higher pressurefalse; the container has to be closedWhen the volume of a gas is reduced by one half, what happens to its pressure?the pressure is doubledtrue/false: raising the temperature of a contained gas causes its pressure to decreasefalse; increaseHow do gases behave when the temperature increases?the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas increases as the particles absorb energy and faster-moving particles impact the wall of their container with more force, exerting greater pressureWhy is it dangerous to throw aerosol containers into a fire?because the gas in a sealed container may generate enormous pressure when heatedtrue/false: when the temperature of a sample of steam increase to 100°C to 200⁰C, the average kinetic energy of its particles doublefalse; kinetic energy is directly proportional to kelvin NOT Celsiuswhat is true about the relationship between the volume and the pressure of a contained gas at constant temperature?when the pressure increases, the volume decreases and when the pressure decreases, volume increaseswhat does it mean to say that 2 variable are directly proportional?if one variable increases, the other should increase the same constant rate every time by the same factortrue/false: Charles's law states that when the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is held constant, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperaturetrueCharles's law may be written V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂ at constant pressure if the temperature are measure on what scale?KelvinGay Lussac's law may be written P₁/T₁ = P₂/T₂ at constant pressure if the temperature are measure on what scale?kelvintrue/false: the gas laws of Boyle's, Charles and Gay Lussac can be combined into a single mathematical equationtrueWhich gas law does this equation represent if temperature is held constant so that T₁ = T₂Boyle's lawWhich gas law does this equation represent if pressure is held constant so that P₁ = P₂Charles's lawWhich gas law does this equation represent if volume is held constant so that V₁ = V₂Gay Lussac's lawIn which situation does the combined gas law enable you to do calculation when the other gas laws do not apply?It allows you to do calculation for situation in which only the amount of a gas is constanttrue/false: Gas pressure depends only on the number of particles in a given volume and on their average kinetic energy. The type of particles does not matter.false; the type of particle does mattertrue/false: if 2 object with different masses have the same kinetic energy, the one with the greater mass must move fasterfalse; the one with the lighter massIs the number of moles in a sample of gas directly proportional or inversely proportional to the number of particles of gas in the sample?directly proportionalAt specified temperature and pressure, is the number of moles of gas in a sample directly proportional or inversely proportional to the volumes of the same?directly proportionalHow can the combined gas law be modified to introduce the number of moles?dived each side of the equation by the number of molesFor what kind of gas is (P x V) / (T x n) a constant for all values of pressure, volume and temperature under which gas?ideal gaswhen would you use the ideal gas law instead of the combined gas law?when you need to use moleswhat is true about ideal and real gases?-there is no real gas that conforms to the kinetic theory under all conditions of temperature and pressure -at many conditions of temperature and pressure, real gases behave very much like ideal gasestrue/false: if a gas were truly an ideal gas, it would be impossible to liquefy or solidify it by cooling or by applying pressuretruereal gases differ most from an ideal at _____ temperature and ______ pressurelow; high