34 terms

Ap gov 4

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Lobbying
Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
Litigation
the process of carrying on a lawsuit
Revolving Door
A term describing the movement of individuals from government positions to jobs with interest groups or lobbying firms, and vice versa.
Interest Group
a group of people with common goals who organize to influence government
Public Interest Group
an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit the members of the group.
Ideological Interest Group
Organization that attract members by appealing to their interest in a coherent set of controversial principles
Iron Triangles
the alliance among congressional committees, interest groups, and federal departments/agencies
Primary Election
Nominating election held to choose party candidates who will run in the general election
Buckley v. Valeo
limit on contributions =constitutional; limit on candidate spending=unconstitutional
Soft Money
funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate
Hard Money
Campaign contributions donated directly to candidates.
PAC
committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates
527s
political organizations formed to influence elections, exempt from federal taxes
FCC
an independent governmeent agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite
Party Activists
partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates
Grassroots
people at the local level; average voters, not professional politicians.
Horse race Journalism
Election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues.
Watch Dog Journalism
Media sources keep an eye on government activities and report abuses
Public Financing
using tax dollars to fund something, such as election-campaign expenses
Muckrakers
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Partisan
devoted to a cause or party
N.Y. Times v Sullivan
public official must prove actual malice to sue for printing a falsehood
Fairness doctrine
FCC rule (no longer in effect) that required broadcasters to air a variety of viewpoints on their programs.
Citizen journalist
Someone who posts news online without having been trained as a reporter or affiliated with any news organization
Issue Ads
Commercial advertising on radio and television advocating a particular position on an issue, paid for by interest groups
Independent expenditures
money spent by individuals or groups, not candidates, in order to elect or defeat a candidate for office
Citizens United v FEC
ruled that corporations may spend money in order to influence election process without donating to a campaign
Mass media
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people
Agenda Setting
the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems
Amicus Curiae Brief
a brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it
Fourth Estate
The press as an unofficial fourth branch of government.
Incumbent
currently holding an office
McCain Feingold
aka Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002, it essentially banned "soft money" contributions made directly to candidates and set stricter guidelines for campagin advertising
FECA
Law made in 1971, which limited amounts that candidates for federal offices can spend on advertising, required the disclosure of the sources of campaign funds as well as how they are spent, limited contributions to candidates and created the Federal Election Commission (FEC)